WHAT ARE THE INGREDIENTS IN THE PFIZER-BIONTECH COVID-19 VACCINE? The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine includes the following ingredients: mRNA, lipids ((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate), 2 [(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide, 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine, and cholesterol), potassium chloride, monobasic potassium phosphate, sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate, and sucrose.


lipids ((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl) READ MODERNA


ALC-0315 ([(4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl]di(hexane-6,1-diyl) bis(2-hexyldecanoate)) is a component of the lipid mixture used in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccineBNT162b2, from BioNTech and Pfizer to form lipid nanoparticles.

ALC-0315 is a physiological pH cationic synthetic lipid that can be used together with other lipids to form lipid nanoparticles (LNPs).[1]

These nanoparticles promote the uptake of therapeutically effective nucleic acids such as oligonucleotides or messenger RNA both in vitro and in vivo[2][3]

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs, sLNPs), or lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), are nanoparticles composed of lipids. They are a novel pharmaceutical drug delivery system (and part of nanoparticle drug delivery), and a novel pharmaceutical formulation.[1][2] LNPs as a drug delivery vehicle were first approved in 2018 for the siRNA drug, Onpattro.[3] LNPs became more widely known in late 2020, as some COVID-19 vaccines that use RNA vaccine technology coat the fragile mRNA strands with PEGylated lipid nanoparticles as their delivery vehicle (including both the Moderna and the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines).[4]

ses1,6-Hexanediol is widely used for industrial polyester and polyurethane production.. 1,6-Hexanediol can improve the hardness and flexibility of polyesters as it contains a fairly long hydrocarbon chain.

Chemical formula: C6H14O2

Molar mass: 118.176 g·mol1

CAS Number: 629-11-8



According to the UN GHS revision 8

Version: 1.0

Creation Date: July 15, 2019

Revision Date: July 15, 2019

SECTION 1: Identification

1.1GHS Product identifier

Product nameAscorbyl tetra-2-hexyldecanoate

1.2Other means of identification

Product number
Other names[(2S)-2-[(2R)-3,4-bis(2-hexyldecanoyloxy)-5-oxo-2H-furan-2-yl]-2-(2-hexyldecanoyloxy)ethyl] 2-hexyldecanoate; L-Ascorbic acid 2,3,5,6-tetrakis(2-hexyldecanoate); BV-OSC

1.3Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified usesIndustrial and scientific research uses.
Uses advised againstno data available

1.4Supplier’s details


1.5Emergency phone number

Emergency phone numberEchemi.com
Service hoursMonday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

SECTION 2: Hazard identification

2.1Classification of the substance or mixture

Skin sensitization, Category 1

Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term (Chronic) – Category Chronic 1

2.2GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Signal wordWarning
Hazard statement(s)H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
Precautionary statement(s)
PreventionP261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. P272 Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace. P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection/hearing protection/… P273 Avoid release to the environment.
ResponseP302+P352 IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of water/… P333+P317 If skin irritation or rash occurs: Get medical help. P321 Specific treatment (see … on this label). P362+P364 Take off contaminated clothing and wash it before reuse. P391 Collect spillage.
DisposalP501 Dispose of contents/container to an appropriate treatment and disposal facility in accordance with applicable laws and regulations, and product characteristics at time of disposal.

2.3Other hazards which do not result in classification

no data available

SECTION 3: Composition/information on ingredients


Chemical nameCommon names and synonymsCAS numberEC numberConcentration
Ascorbyl tetra-2-hexyldecanoateAscorbyl tetra-2-hexyldecanoate183476-82-6100%

SECTION 4: First-aid measures

4.1Description of necessary first-aid measures

If inhaled

Move the victim into fresh air. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. If not breathing, give artificial respiration and consult a doctor immediately. Do not use mouth to mouth resuscitation if the victim ingested or inhaled the chemical.

Following skin contact

Take off contaminated clothing immediately. Wash off with soap and plenty of water. Consult a doctor.

Following eye contact

Rinse with pure water for at least 15 minutes. Consult a doctor.

Following ingestion

Rinse mouth with water. Do not induce vomiting. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Call a doctor or Poison Control Center immediately.

4.2Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed

no data available

4.3Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if necessary

no data available

SECTION 5: Fire-fighting measures

5.1Suitable extinguishing media

Use dry chemical, carbon dioxide or alcohol-resistant foam.

5.2Specific hazards arising from the chemical

no data available

5.3Special protective actions for fire-fighters

Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

SECTION 6: Accidental release measures

6.1Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures

Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing mist, gas or vapours.Avoid contacting with skin and eye. Use personal protective equipment.Wear chemical impermeable gloves. Ensure adequate ventilation.Remove all sources of ignition. Evacuate personnel to safe areas.Keep people away from and upwind of spill/leak.

6.2Environmental precautions

Prevent further spillage or leakage if it is safe to do so. Do not let the chemical enter drains. Discharge into the environment must be avoided.

6.3Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up

Collect and arrange disposal. Keep the chemical in suitable and closed containers for disposal. Remove all sources of ignition. Use spark-proof tools and explosion-proof equipment. Adhered or collected material should be promptly disposed of, in accordance with appropriate laws and regulations.

SECTION 7: Handling and storage

7.1Precautions for safe handling

Handling in a well ventilated place. Wear suitable protective clothing. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Use non-sparking tools. Prevent fire caused by electrostatic discharge steam.

7.2Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

Store the container tightly closed in a dry, cool and well-ventilated place. Store apart from foodstuff containers or incompatible materials.

SECTION 8: Exposure controls/personal protection

8.1Control parameters

Occupational Exposure limit values

no data available

Biological limit values

no data available

8.2Appropriate engineering controls

Ensure adequate ventilation. Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Set up emergency exits and the risk-elimination area.

8.3Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment (PPE)

Eye/face protection

Wear tightly fitting safety goggles with side-shields conforming to EN 166(EU) or NIOSH (US).

Skin protection

Wear fire/flame resistant and impervious clothing. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

Respiratory protection

If the exposure limits are exceeded, irritation or other symptoms are experienced, use a full-face respirator.

Thermal hazards

no data available

SECTION 9: Physical and chemical properties and safety characteristics

Physical stateno data available
Colourno data available
Odourno data available
Melting point/freezing pointno data available
Boiling point or initial boiling point and boiling rangeno data available
Flammabilityno data available
Lower and upper explosion limit/flammability limitno data available
Flash pointno data available
Auto-ignition temperatureno data available
Decomposition temperatureno data available
pHno data available
Kinematic viscosityno data available
Solubilityno data available
Partition coefficient n-octanol/waterno data available
Vapour pressureno data available
Density and/or relative densityno data available
Relative vapour densityno data available
Particle characteristicsno data available

SECTION 10: Stability and reactivity


no data available

10.2Chemical stability

no data available

10.3Possibility of hazardous reactions

no data available

10.4Conditions to avoid

no data available

10.5Incompatible materials

no data available

10.6Hazardous decomposition products

no data available

SECTION 11: Toxicological information

Acute toxicity

  • Oral: no data available
  • Inhalation: no data available
  • Dermal: no data available

Skin corrosion/irritation

no data available

Serious eye damage/irritation

no data available

Respiratory or skin sensitization

no data available

Germ cell mutagenicity

no data available


no data available

Reproductive toxicity

no data available

STOT-single exposure

no data available

STOT-repeated exposure

no data available

Aspiration hazard

no data available

SECTION 12: Ecological information


  • Toxicity to fish: no data available
  • Toxicity to daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates: no data available
  • Toxicity to algae: no data available
  • Toxicity to microorganisms: no data available

12.2Persistence and degradability

no data available

12.3Bioaccumulative potential

no data available

12.4Mobility in soil

no data available

12.5Other adverse effects

no data available

SECTION 13: Disposal considerations

13.1Disposal methods


The material can be disposed of by removal to a licensed chemical destruction plant or by controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing. Do not contaminate water, foodstuffs, feed or seed by storage or disposal. Do not discharge to sewer systems.

Contaminated packaging

Containers can be triply rinsed (or equivalent) and offered for recycling or reconditioning. Alternatively, the packaging can be punctured to make it unusable for other purposes and then be disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing is possible for combustible packaging materials.

SECTION 14: Transport information

14.1UN Number

ADR/RID: no data availableIMDG: no data availableIATA: no data available

14.2UN Proper Shipping Name

ADR/RID: no data availableIMDG: no data availableIATA: no data available

14.3Transport hazard class(es)

ADR/RID: no data availableIMDG: no data availableIATA: no data available

14.4Packing group, if applicable

ADR/RID: no data availableIMDG: no data availableIATA: no data available

14.5Environmental hazards


14.6Special precautions for user

no data available

14.7Transport in bulk according to IMO instruments

no data available

SECTION 15: Regulatory information

15.1Safety, health and environmental regulations specific for the product in question

Chemical nameCommon names and synonymsCAS numberEC number
Ascorbyl tetra-2-hexyldecanoateAscorbyl tetra-2-hexyldecanoate183476-82-6
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS)Not Listed.
EC InventoryNot Listed.
United States Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) InventoryNot Listed.
China Catalog of Hazardous chemicals 2015Not Listed.
New Zealand Inventory of Chemicals (NZIoC)Listed.
Philippines Inventory of Chemicals and Chemical Substances (PICCS)Not Listed.
Vietnam National Chemical InventoryListed.
Chinese Chemical Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances (China IECSC)Listed.
Korea Existing Chemicals List (KECL)Not Listed.

SECTION 16: Other information

Information on revision

Creation DateJuly 15, 2019
Revision DateJuly 15, 2019

Abbreviations and acronyms

  • CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service
  • ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
  • RID: Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
  • IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods
  • IATA: International Air Transportation Association
  • TWA: Time Weighted Average
  • STEL: Short term exposure limit
  • LC50: Lethal Concentration 50%
  • LD50: Lethal Dose 50%
  • EC50: Effective Concentration 50%


Any questions regarding this SDS, Please send your inquiry to sds@xixisys.com

Disclaimer: The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. We as supplier shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product.

2 [(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N, READ MODERNA




PubChem CID10072531
Structure Find Similar Structures
Molecular FormulaC30H61NO
SynonymsN,N-di(tetradecyl)acetamide SCHEMBL8431297
Molecular Weight451.8 g/mol
DatesModify 2021-05-01 Create 2006-10-25



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1.23D Status


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2Names and Identifiers


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Acetamide 60-35-5 Hazard Summary Acetamide is used primarily as a solvent and a plasticizer.  Workers may be exposed in the plastics and chemical industries.  It causes mild skin irritation from acute (short-term) exposure.  No information is available on the chronic (long-term), reproductive/developmental, or carcinogenic effects of acetamide in humans.  EPA has not classified acetamide for carcinogenicity. Please Note: The main source of information for this fact sheet is the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) (1), a database of summaries of peer-reviewed literature.  Other secondary sources include the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) (2), a database of toxic effects that are not peer reviewed, and the IARC Monographs on Chemicals Carcinogenic to Humans. (3) Uses Acetamide is used as a solvent, plasticizer, and a wetting and penetrating agent. (1) Sources and Potential Exposure Occupational exposure to acetamide may occur for those workers in the plastics and chemical industries. (1) Assessing Personal Exposure No information is available on the assessment of personal exposure to acetamide. Health Hazard Information Acute Effects: Acetamide causes mild skin irritation in humans from acute exposure. (1) Tests involving acute exposure of rats and mice have shown acetamide to have low to moderate acute toxicity from oral exposure. (2) Chronic Effects (Noncancer): No information is available on the chronic effects of acetamide in humans or animals. The Reference Concentration (RfC) for acetamide is under review by EPA. EPA has not established a Reference Dose (RfD) for acetamide. Reproductive/Developmental Effects: No information is available on the reproductive or developmental effects of acetamide in humans. Animal studies have not reported any significant developmental effects from exposure to acetamide. (1) Cancer Risk: No information is available on the carcinogenic effects of acetamide in humans. Animal studies have reported liver tumors from oral exposure to acetamide. (1,3,4,5) EPA has not classified acetamide for carcinogenicity. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified acetamide as a Group 2B, possible The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified acetamide as a Group 2B, possible human carcinogen. (3) The California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) has established an inhalation unit risk estimate of 2.0×10 -5 (µg/m 3 ) -1  and an oral cancer slope factor of 7.0×10 -2 (mg/kg/d) -1  for acetamide (5) Physical Properties Acetamide exists as hexagonal crystals. (1) The odor threshold for acetamide is 140 to 160 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m 3 ). (1) The chemical formula for acetamide is C 2 H 5 NO, and the molecular weight is 59.07 g/mol. (1) The vapor pressure for acetamide is 1 mm Hg at 65 °C, and it has a log octanol/water partition coefficient (log K ow ) of -1.26. (1,6) Note: There are very few health numbers or regulatory/advisory numbers for acetamide; thus, a graph has not been prepared for this compound.  The health values cited in this factsheet were obtained in December 1999. Conversion Factors: To convert concentrations in air (at 25°C) from ppm to mg/m 3 : mg/m 3  = (ppm) × (molecular weight of the compound)/(24.45).  For acetamide: 1 ppm = 2.41 mg/m 3 . Summary created in April 1992, updated in January 2000 References 1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB, online database). National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. 1993. 2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS, online database). National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. 1993. 3. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans. Supplement 7. World Health Organization, Lyon. 1987. 4. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Volume 7. World Health Organization, Lyon. 1974. 5. California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA). Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines: Part II. Technical Support Document for Describing Available Cancer Potency Factors. 1999. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Berkeley, CA. 1999. 6. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation. Material Safety Data Sheet on Acetamide. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, Milwaukee, WI. 1992.

1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine, and cholesterol),

Calcium-mediated binding of DNA to 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine-containing mixed lipid monolayers

Aleksandra P. Dabkowska,a   David J. Barlow,a   Luke A. Clifton,b   Arwel V. Hughes,b   John R. P. Webster,b   Rebecca J. Green,c   Peter J. Quinna  and  M. Jayne Lawrence*a  

 Author affiliations


The calcium-mediated interaction of DNA with monolayers of the non-toxic, zwitterionic phospholipid, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine when mixed with 50 mol% of a second lipid, either the zwitteronic 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine or neutral cholesterol was investigated using a combination of surface pressure-area isotherms, Brewster angle microscopy, external reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and specular neutron reflectivity in combination with contrast variation. When calcium and DNA were both present in the aqueous subphase, changes were observed in the compression isotherms as well as the surface morphologies of the mixed lipid monolayers. In the presence of calcium and DNA, specular neutron reflectivity showed that directly underneath the head groups of the lipids comprising the monolayers, DNA occupied a layer comprising approximately 13 and 18% v/v DNA for the 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine and cholesterol-containing monolayers, respectively. The volume of the corresponding layer for 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine only containing monolayers was ∼15% v/v DNA. Furthermore regardless of the presence and nature of the second lipid and the surface pressure of the monolayer, the specular neutron reflectivity experiments showed that the DNA-containing layer was 20–27 Å thick, suggesting the presence of a well-hydrated layer of double-stranded DNA. External reflectance Fourier transform infrared studies confirmed the presence of double stranded DNA, and indicated that the strands are in the B-form conformation. The results shed light on the interaction between lipids and nucleic acid cargo as well as the role of a second lipid in lipid-based carriers for drug delivery.


Lipid-based nanoparticles have in recent years attracted increasing attention as pharmaceutical carriers. In particular, reports of them having inherent adjuvant properties combined with their ability to protect antigen from degradation make them suitable as vaccine vectors. However, the physicochemical profile of an ideal nanoparticle for vaccine delivery is still poorly defined. Here, we used an in vitro dendritic cell assay to assess the immunogenicity of a variety of liposome formulations as vaccine carriers and adjuvants. Using flow cytometry, we investigated liposome-assisted antigen presentation as well as the expression of relevant costimulatory molecules on the cell surface. Cytokine secretion was further evaluated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We show that liposomes can successfully enhance antigen presentation and maturation of dendritic cells, as compared to vaccine fusion protein (CTA1-3Eα-DD) administered alone. In particular, the lipid phase state of the membrane was found to greatly influence the vaccine antigen processing by dendritic cells. As compared to their fluid phase counterparts, gel phase liposomes were more efficient at improving antigen presentation. They were also superior at upregulating the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 as well as increasing the release of the cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β. Taken together, we demonstrate that gel phase liposomes, while nonimmunogenic on their own, significantly enhance the antigen-presenting ability of dendritic cells and appear to be a promising way forward to improve vaccine immunogenicity.

potassium chloride,

Potassium chloride

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Not to be confused with Potassium chlorate.

“KCl” redirects here. For other uses, see KCL (disambiguation).

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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This article is about the salt. For the use of potassium chloride as a medication, see Potassium chloride (medical use). For the use of potassium in biology, see Potassium in biology.

Potassium chloride
Other names Sylvite
Muriate of potash
CAS Number7447-40-7 
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
ECHA InfoCard100.028.374 
E numberE508 (acidity regulators, …)
PubChem CID4873
RTECS numberTS8050000
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID5021178 
show InChI
Chemical formulaKCl
Molar mass74.555 g·mol−1
Appearancewhite crystalline solid
Density1.984 g/cm3
Melting point770 °C (1,420 °F; 1,040 K)
Boiling point1,420 °C (2,590 °F; 1,690 K)
Solubility in water277.7 g/L (0 °C)
339.7 g/L (20 °C)
540.2 g/L (100 °C)
SolubilitySoluble in glycerolalkalies
Slightly soluble in alcohol Insoluble in ether[1]
Solubility in ethanol0.00288 g/L (25 °C)[2]
Acidity (pKa)~7
Magnetic susceptibility (χ)−39.0·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD)1.4902 (589 nm)
Crystal structureface centered cubic
Space groupFm3m, No. 225
Lattice constanta = 629.2 pm[3]
Coordination geometryOctahedral (K+)
Octahedral (Cl)
Std molar
83 J·mol−1·K−1[4]
Std enthalpy of
−436 kJ·mol−1[4]
ATC codeA12BA01 (WHOB05XA01 (WHO)
Routes of
Oral, IV, IM
ExcretionRenal: 90%; Fecal: 10%[5]
Safety data sheetICSC 1450
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)NFPA 704 four-colored diamond 1 0 0
Flash pointNon-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LD50 (median dose)2600 mg/kg (oral, rat)[6]
Related compounds
Other anionsPotassium fluoride
Potassium bromide
Potassium iodide
Other cationsLithium chloride
Sodium chloride
Rubidium chloride
Caesium chloride
Ammonium chloride
Related compoundsPotassium chlorate
Potassium perchlorate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Potassium chloride (KCl, or potassium salt) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. It is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance. The solid dissolves readily in water, and its solutions have a salt-like taste. Potassium chloride can be obtained from ancient dried lake deposits.[7] KCl is used as a fertilizer,[8] in medicine, in scientific applications, and in food processing, where it may be known as E number additive E508.


The majority of the potassium chloride produced is used for making fertilizer, called potash, since the growth of many plants is limited by potassium availability. The two main types of potash are muriate of potash (MOP, potassium chloride) and sulphate of potash (SOP, potassium sulphate). While SOP typically sells at a premium to MOP, the vast majority of potash fertilizer worldwide is sold as MOP.

Potassium chloride, compacted, fertilizer grade.

Medical use[edit]

Main article: Potassium chloride (medical use)

Potassium is vital in the human body, and potassium chloride by mouth is the common means to treat low blood potassium, although it can also be given intravenously. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines.[10] Overdose causes hyperkalemia which can disrupt cell signaling to the extent that the heart will stop, reversibly in the case of some open heart surgeries.

Culinary use[edit]

It can be used as a salt substitute for food, but due to its weak, bitter, unsalty flavor, it is often mixed with ordinary table salt (sodium chloride) to improve the taste to form low sodium salt. The addition of 1 ppm of thaumatin considerably reduces this bitterness.[11] Complaints of bitterness or a chemical or metallic taste are also reported with potassium chloride used in food.[12]


As a chemical feedstock, it is used for the manufacture of potassium hydroxide and potassium metal. It is also used in medicine, lethal injectionsscientific applications, food processingsoaps, and as a sodium-free substitute for table salt for people concerned about the health effects of sodium.

It is used as a supplement in animal feed to boost the number of nutrients in the feed, which in turn promotes healthy growth in animals. As an added benefit, it is known to increase milk production.

It is sometimes used in water as a completion fluid in petroleum and natural gas operations, as well as being an alternative to sodium chloride in household water softener units.

Glass manufacturers use granular potash as a flux, lowering the temperature at which a mixture melts. Because potash confers excellent clarity to glass, it is commonly used in eyeglasses, glassware, televisions, and computer monitors.

KCl is useful as a beta radiation source for calibration of radiation monitoring equipment, because natural potassium contains 0.0118% of the isotope 40K. One kilogram of KCl yields 16350 becquerels of radiation consisting of 89.28% beta and 10.72% gamma with 1.46083 MeV. In order to use off the shelf materials it needs to be crystallized sequentially using controlled temperature in order to extract KCl, which is the subject of ongoing research. There are also a small number of 511 keV gamma rays from positron annihilation which can be used to calibrate medical scanners.

Potassium chloride is used in some de-icing products that are designed to be safer for pets and plants, though these are inferior in melting quality to calcium chloride [lowest usable temperature 12 °F (−11 °C) v. −25 °F (−32 °C)]. It is also used in various brands of bottled water, as well as in bulk quantities for fossil fuel drilling purposes.

Potassium chloride was once used as a fire extinguishing agent, used in portable and wheeled fire extinguishers. Known as Super-K dry chemical, it was more effective than sodium bicarbonate-based dry chemicals and was compatible with protein foam. This agent fell out of favor with the introduction of potassium bicarbonate (Purple-K) dry chemical in the late 1960s, which was much less corrosive and more effective. It is rated for B and C fires.

Along with sodium chloride and lithium chloride, potassium chloride is used as a flux for the gas welding of aluminium.

Potassium chloride is also an optical crystal with a wide transmission range from 210 nm to 20 µm. While cheap, KCl crystals are hygroscopic. This limits its application to protected environments or short-term uses such as prototyping. Exposed to free air, KCl optics will “rot”. Whereas KCl components were formerly used for infrared optics, it has been entirely replaced by much tougher crystals such as zinc selenide.

Potassium chloride is used as a scotophor with designation P10 in dark-trace CRTs, e.g. in the Skiatron.

Execution by lethal injection[edit]

In a few states of the United States, it is used to cause cardiac arrest, as the third drug in the “three drug cocktail” for executions by lethal injection.

Side effects[edit]

The typical amounts of potassium chloride found in the diet appear to be generally safe.[13] In larger quantities, however, potassium chloride is toxic. The LD50 of orally ingested potassium chloride is approximately 2.5 g/kg, or 190 grams (6.7 oz) for a body mass of 75 kilograms (165 lb). In comparison, the LD50 of sodium chloride (table salt) is 3.75 g/kg.

Intravenously, the LD50 of potassium chloride is far smaller, at about 57.2 mg/kg to 66.7 mg/kg; this is found by dividing the lethal concentration of positive potassium ions (about 30 to 35 mg/kg)[14] by the proportion by mass of potassium ions in potassium chloride (about 0.52445 mg K+/mg KCl).[15]

Chemical properties[edit]


KCl is soluble in a variety of polar solvents.

(g/kg of solvent at 25 °C)
Liquid ammonia0.4
Liquid sulfur dioxide0.41
Formic acid192

Solutions of KCl are common standards, for example for calibration of the electrical conductivity of (ionic) solutions, since KCl solutions are stable, allowing for reproducible measurements. In aqueous solution, it is essentially fully ionized into solvated K+ and Cl ions.

Redox and the conversion to potassium metal[edit]

Although potassium is more electropositive than sodium, KCl can be reduced to the metal by reaction with metallic sodium at 850 °C because the more volatile potassium can be removed by distillation (see Le Chatelier’s principle):

KCl(l) + Na(l) ⇌ NaCl(l) + K(g)

This method is the main method for producing metallic potassium. Electrolysis (used for sodium) fails because of the high solubility of potassium in molten KCl.[9]

Physical properties

“Raise banana yields using Israeli potassium chloride!”, an ad above a highway in a banana-growing district of Hekou CountyYunnan, China

The crystal structure of potassium chloride is like that of NaCl. It adopts a face-centered cubic structure. Its lattice constant is roughly 6.3 Å. Crystals cleave easily in three directions.

Some other properties are

  • Transmission range: 210 nm to 20 µm
  • Transmittivity = 92% at 450 nm and rises linearly to 94% at 16 µm
  • Refractive index = 1.456 at 10 µm
  • Reflection loss = 6.8% at 10 µm (two surfaces)
  • dN/dT (expansion coefficient)= −33.2×10−6/°C
  • dL/dT (refractive index gradient)= 40×10−6/°C
  • Thermal conductivity = 0.036 W/(cm·K)
  • Damage threshold (Newman and Novak): 4 GW/cm2 or 2 J/cm2 (0.5 or 1 ns pulse rate); 4.2 J/cm2 (1.7 ns pulse rate Kovalev and Faizullov)

As with other compounds containing potassium, KCl in powdered form gives a lilac flame.

Potassium chloride is extracted from minerals sylvitecarnallite, and potash. It is also extracted from salt water and can be manufactured by crystallization from solutionflotation or electrostatic separation from suitable minerals. It is a by-product of the production of nitric acid from potassium nitrate and hydrochloric acid.

The vast majority of potassium chloride is produced as agricultural and industrial grade potash in Saskatchewan, Canada, as well as Russia and Belarus. Saskatchewan alone accounted for over 25% of the world’s potash production in 2017.[17]

Laboratory methods[edit]

Potassium chloride is inexpensively available and is rarely prepared intentionally in the laboratory. It can be generated by treating potassium hydroxide (or other potassium bases) with hydrochloric acid:

KOH + HCl → KCl + H2O

This conversion is an acid-base neutralization reaction. The resulting salt can then be purified by recrystallization. Another method would be to allow potassium to burn in the presence of chlorine gas, also a very exothermic reaction:

2 K + Cl2 → 2 KCl

monobasic potassium phosphate,

Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic sc-203211 Hazard Alert Code Key: EXTREME HIGH MODERATE LOW Section 1 – CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION PRODUCT NAME Potassium Phosphate, Monobasic STATEMENT OF HAZARDOUS NATURE CONSIDERED A HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE ACCORDING TO OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200. NFPA SUPPLIER Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. 2145 Delaware Avenue Santa Cruz, California 95060 800.457.3801 or 831.457.3800 EMERGENCY ChemWatch Within the US & Canada: 877-715-9305 Outside the US & Canada: +800 2436 2255 (1-800-CHEMCALL) or call +613 9573 3112 SYNONYMS KH2PO4, H2-K-O4-P, KH2PO4, “potassium phosphate”, “potassium biphosphate”, “potassium acid phosphate”, “potassium dihydrogen phosphate”, “monopotassium phosphate”, “Sorensen’ s potassium phosphate”, MKP, “Ajax UNIVAR”, “phosphoric acid, monopotassium salt”, “monopotassium dihydrogen phosphate”, “Merck 10203, 15318, 29608, 45223, 71309” Section 2 – HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION CHEMWATCH HAZARD RATINGS Min Max Flammability 0 Toxicity 2 Body Contact 2 Reactivity 0 Chronic 2 Min/Nil=0 Low=1 Moderate=2 High=3 Extreme=4 CANADIAN WHMIS SYMBOLS FLAMMABILITY 0 HEALTH HAZARD 0 INSTABILITY 0 1 of 9 POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS ACUTE HEALTH EFFECTS SWALLOWED ■ Accidental ingestion of the material may be damaging to the health of the individual. ■ Acute potassium poisoning after swallowing is rare, because vomiting usually occurs and renal excretion is fast. Potassium causes a slow, weak pulse, irregularities in heart rhythm, heart block and an eventual fall in blood pressure. Breathing initially becomes faster but the muscles of breathing eventually become paralysed. There can be loss of appetite, extreme thirst, increased volumes of urine, fever, convulsions and gastric disturbances; death may then occur due to failure of breathing and inflammation of the stomach and bowel. ■ As absorption of phosphates from the bowel is poor, poisoning this way is less likely. Effects can include vomiting, tiredness, fever, diarrhoea, low blood pressure, slow pulse, cyanosis, spasms of the wrist, coma and severe body spasms. EYE ■ There is some evidence to suggest that this material can cause eye irritation and damage in some persons. ■ Alkaline salts may be intensely irritating to the eyes and precautions should be taken to ensure direct eye contact is avoided. SKIN ■ The material is not thought to produce adverse health effects or skin irritation following contact (as classified by EC Directives using animal models). Nevertheless, good hygiene practice requires that exposure be kept to a minimum and that suitable gloves be used in an occupational setting. ■ Entry into the blood-stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use of the material and ensure that any external damage is suitably protected. INHALED ■ The material is not thought to produce either adverse health effects or irritation of the respiratory tract following inhalation (as classified by EC Directives using animal models). Nevertheless, adverse systemic effects have been produced following exposure of animals by at least one other route and good hygiene practice requires that exposure be kept to a minimum and that suitable control measures be used in an occupational setting. CHRONIC HEALTH EFFECTS ■ Substance accumulation, in the human body, may occur and may cause some concern following repeated or long-term occupational exposure. Sodium phosphate dibasic can cause stones in the kidney, loss of mineral from the bones and loss of thyroid gland function. Long term exposure to high dust concentrations may cause changes in lung function i.e. pneumoconiosis; caused by particles less than 0.5 micron penetrating and remaining in the lung. Prime symptom is breathlessness; lung shadows show on X-ray. Section 3 – COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS NAME CAS RN % potassium phosphate, monobasic 7778-77-0 99 Section 4 – FIRST AID MEASURES SWALLOWED If swallowed do NOT induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain open airway and prevent aspiration. Observe the patient carefully. Never give liquid to a person showing signs of being sleepy or with reduced awareness; i.e. becoming unconscious. Give water to rinse out mouth, then provide liquid slowly and as much as casualty can comfortably drink. Seek medical advice. EYE If this product comes in contact with the eyes Wash out immediately with fresh running water. Ensure complete irrigation of the eye by keeping eyelids apart and away from eye and moving the eyelids by occasionally lifting the upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention without delay; if pain persists or recurs seek medical attention. Removal of contact lenses after an eye injury should only be undertaken by skilled personnel. SKIN 2 of 9 If skin or hair contact occurs Flush skin and hair with running water (and soap if available). Seek medical attention in event of irritation. INHALED If dust is inhaled, remove from contaminated area. Encourage patient to blow nose to ensure clear passage of breathing. If irritation or discomfort persists seek medical attention. NOTES TO PHYSICIAN ■ For potassium intoxications Hyperkalaemia, in patients with abnormal renal function, results from reduced renal excretion following intoxication. The presence of electrocardiographic evidence of hyperkalemia or serum potassium levels exceeding 7.5 mE/L indicates a medical emergency requiring an intravenous line and constant cardiac monitoring. The intravenous ingestion of 5-10 ml of 10% calcium gluconate, in adults, over a 2 minute period antagonises the cardiac and neuromuscular effects. The duration of action is approximately 1 hour. [Ellenhorn and Barceloux Medical Toxicology


dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate,

Material Safety Data Sheet

Sodium phosphate dibasic dihydrate

ACC# 01999

Section 1 – Chemical Product and Company Identification

MSDS Name: Sodium phosphate dibasic dihydrate
Catalog Numbers: AC343810000, AC343810050, AC343810250
 Phosphoric acid, disodium salt, dihydrate; Disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate; Sodium hydrogenphosphate dihydrate.
Company Identification:

              Acros Organics N.V.
              One Reagent Lane
              Fair Lawn, NJ 07410
For information in North America, call: 800-ACROS-01
For emergencies in the US, call CHEMTREC: 800-424-9300

Section 2 – Composition, Information on Ingredients
CAS#Chemical NamePercentEINECS/ELINCS
10028-24-7Phosphoric acid, disodium salt, dihydrate99+unlisted
Section 3 – Hazards Identification


Appearance: white crystals.
Caution! May cause eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation. Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air). The toxicological properties of this material have not been fully investigated.
Target Organs: None known.

Potential Health Effects
Eye: May cause eye irritation.
Skin: May cause skin irritation. May be harmful if absorbed through the skin.
Ingestion: May cause irritation of the digestive tract. May be harmful if swallowed.
Inhalation: May cause respiratory tract irritation. May be harmful if inhaled.
Chronic: No information found.

Section 4 – First Aid Measures

Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting the upper and lower eyelids. If irritation develo ps, get medical aid.
Skin: Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists.
Ingestion: Do not induce vomiting. Get medical aid if irritation or symptoms occur.
Inhalation: Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid if cough or other symptoms appear.
Notes to Physician: Treat symptomatically and supportively.

Section 5 – Fire Fighting Measures

General Information: As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Substance is noncombustible.
Extinguishing Media: Substance is noncombustible; use agent most appropriate to extinguish surrounding fire.
Flash Point: Not available.
Autoignition Temperature: Not available.
Explosion Limits, Lower:Not available.
Upper: Not available.
NFPA Rating: (estimated) Health: 1; Flammability: 0; Instability: 1

Section 6 – Accidental Release Measures

General Information: Use proper personal protective equipment as indicated in Section 8.
Spills/Leaks: Vacuum or sweep up material and place into a suitable disposal container. Avoid generating dusty conditions. Provide ventilation. Do not let this chemical enter the environment.

Section 7 – Handling and Storage

Handling: Use with adequate ventilation. Minimize dust generation and accumulation. Avoid contact with eyes, skin, and clothing. Avoid ingestion and inhalation.
Storage: Store in a cool, dry place. Store in a tightly closed container.

Section 8 – Exposure Controls, Personal Protection

Engineering Controls: Facilities storing or utilizing this material should be equipped with an eyewash facility and a safety shower. Use adequate ventilation to keep airborne concentrations low.
Exposure Limits

Chemical NameACGIHNIOSHOSHA – Final PELs
Phosphoric acid, disodium salt, dihydratenone listednone listednone listed
Sodium phosphate dibasic, anhydrousnone listednone listednone listed

OSHA Vacated PELs: Phosphoric acid, disodium salt, dihydrate: No OSHA Vacated PELs are listed for this chemical. Sodium phosphate dibasic, anhydrous: No OSHA Vacated PELs are listed for this chemical.
Personal Protective Equipment
Eyes: Wear appropriate protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles as described by OSHA’s eye and face protection regulations in 29 CFR 1910.133 or European Standard EN166.
Skin: Wear appropriate protective gloves to prevent skin exposure.
Clothing: Wear appropriate protective clothing to prevent skin exposure.
Respirators: Follow the OSHA respirator regulations found in 29 CFR 1910.134 or European Standard EN 149. Use a NIOSH/MSHA or European Standard EN 149 approved respirator if exposure limits are exceeded or if irritation or other symptoms are experienced.

Section 9 – Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical State: Crystals
Appearance: white
Odor: odorless
pH: 8.7 – 9.4 (0.5 M aq.sol.)
Vapor Pressure: Not available.
Vapor Density: Not available.
Evaporation Rate:Not available.
Viscosity: Not available.
Boiling Point: Not available.
Freezing/Melting Point:243 – 245 deg C
Decomposition Temperature:Not available.
Solubility: 93 g/L (20°C)
Specific Gravity/Density:Not available.
Molecular Formula:HNa2O4P.2H2O
Molecular Weight:177.99

Section 10 – Stability and Reactivity

Chemical Stability: Hygroscopic: absorbs moisture or water from the air.
Conditions to Avoid: Incompatible materials, dust generation, excess heat, exposure to moist air or water.
Incompatibilities with Other Materials: Strong oxidizing agents.
Hazardous Decomposition Products: Phosphine, oxides of phosphorus, sodium oxide.
Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur.

Section 11 – Toxicological Information

CAS# 10028-24-7 unlisted.      
CAS# 7558-79-4: WC4500000
Not available.

CAS# 7558-79-4:
     Draize test, rabbit, eye: 500 mg/24H Mild;
     Draize test, rabbit, skin: 500 mg/24H Mild;
     Oral, rat: LD50 = 17 gm/kg;

CAS# 10028-24-7: Not listed by ACGIH, IARC, NTP, or CA Prop 65.
CAS# 7558-79-4: Not listed by ACGIH, IARC, NTP, or CA Prop 65.

Epidemiology: No information found
Teratogenicity: No information found
Reproductive Effects: No information found
Mutagenicity: No information found
Neurotoxicity: No information found
Other Studies:

Section 12 – Ecological Information

Ecotoxicity: No data available. No information available.
Environmental: No information available.
Physical: No information available.
Other: Do not empty into drains.

Section 13 – Disposal Considerations

Chemical waste generators must determine whether a discarded chemical is classified as a hazardous waste. US EPA guidelines for the classification determination are listed in 40 CFR Parts 261.3. Additionally, waste generators must consult state and local hazardous waste regulations to ensure complete and accurate classification.
RCRA P-Series: None listed.
RCRA U-Series: None listed.

Section 14 – Transport Information
Shipping Name:Not regulated.Not regulated.
Hazard Class:
UN Number:
Packing Group:
Section 15 – Regulatory Information


     CAS# 10028-24-7 is not on the TSCA Inventory because it is a hydrate. It is considered to be listed if the CAS number for the anhydrous form is on the inventory (40CFR720.3(u)(2)).
     CAS# 7558-79-4 is listed on the TSCA inventory.
Health & Safety Reporting List
     None of the chemicals are on the Health & Safety Reporting List.
Chemical Test Rules
     None of the chemicals in this product are under a Chemical Test Rule.
Section 12b
     None of the chemicals are listed under TSCA Section 12b.
TSCA Significant New Use Rule
     None of the chemicals in this material have a SNUR under TSCA.
CERCLA Hazardous Substances and corresponding RQs
     CAS# 7558-79-4: 5000 lb final RQ; 2270 kg final RQ
SARA Section 302 Extremely Hazardous Substances
     None of the chemicals in this product have a TPQ.
Section 313      No chemicals are reportable under Section 313.
Clean Air Act:
     This material does not contain any hazardous air pollutants.
     This material does not contain any Class 1 Ozone depletors.
     This material does not contain any Class 2 Ozone depletors.
Clean Water Act:
CAS# 10028-24-7 is listed as a Hazardous Substance under the CWA. CAS# 7558-79-4 is listed as a Hazardous Substance under the CWA.
     None of the chemicals in this product are listed as Priority Pollutants under the CWA.
     None of the chemicals in this product are listed as Toxic Pollutants under the CWA.
     None of the chemicals in this product are considered highly hazardous by OSHA.
     CAS# 10028-24-7 is not present on state lists from CA, PA, MN, MA, FL, or NJ.
     CAS# 7558-79-4 can be found on the following state right to know lists: California, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts.

California Prop 65

California No Significant Risk Level: None of the chemicals in this product are listed.

European/International Regulations

European Labeling in Accordance with EC Directives
Hazard Symbols:
      Not available.
Risk Phrases:

Safety Phrases:

     S 24/25 Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

WGK (Water Danger/Protection)

     CAS# 10028-24-7: 1
     CAS# 7558-79-4: 1
Canada – DSL/NDSL
     CAS# 7558-79-4 is listed on Canada’s DSL List.
Canada – WHMIS
     not available.
This product has been classified in accordance with the hazard criteria of the Controlled Products Regulations and the MSDS contains all of the information required by those regulations.
Canadian Ingredient Disclosure List

and sucrose. READ MODERNA

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