Get Healthy, Be Healthy, STAY HEALTHY

You do not need to get a “V****ne s**t in order to be healthy you need to be aware of what you are taking into your body instead!

Oregon wants to ban killing livestock for food.

They proved that if you eat too much soy it can cause femininization in men, but they claim no one normally eats that much soy for that to happen. Not until they ban real meat and make soy meat the only option that is…

Any system in the body controlled by hormones can be derailed by hormone disruptors. Specifically, endocrine disruptors may be associated with the development of learning disabilities, severe attention deficit disordercognitive and brain development problems;[6][7] deformations of the body (including limbs); breast cancer, prostate cancer, thyroid and other cancers; sexual development problems such as feminizing of males or masculinizing effects on females, etc.[8]

 Sanders R (2010-03-01). “Pesticide atrazine can turn male frogs into females”Berkeley News. Retrieved 2017-08-08.

Problem with labgrown meat.

Bill Gates wants to block the sun from reaching earth.

It’s not just CRAZY BILL GATES doing and offering insane solutions look at wat Elon Musk is offering.

GLUTEN IS NOT YOUR ENEMY!!! God created it and it is needed in order to help absorb other VITAMINS NEEDED IN YOUR BODY!!!

What Exactly Is Gluten?

What Exactly Is Gluten?

By: Allergic Living in CeliacPublished: August 30, 2010

In Latin, gluten means “glue” and that’s exactly what it is: two proteins, gliadin and glutenin, stuck together. Gluten is found in wheat, barley and rye, which means it is in a myriad of products, from the usual suspects like bread and bagels to those that are not nearly so obvious.

Think meat substitutes, for example, or bouillon cubes, licorice and lip balm. With celiac disease, the villi – tiny, finger-like projections in the small intestine that act as gatekeepers to the rest of the body – reject gluten for some unknown reason.

This rejection can affect the absorption rate of many other nutrients that are key to our wellbeing, including calcium, iron and vitamin A.

When God created everything on the earth He looked at it and said it was GOOD! Yet, now scientists and dieticians are saying otherwise and people are jumping on the bandwagon to “stay fit” so they think! Yes, some people are allergic to some things and it can harm their bodies and make them sick. But for the majority of the population removing the vitamins and minerals that God created in foods from our diets are making us weak and sickly. Prone to diseases and virus’, they have been preparing our bodies for decades to become easy targets of illness’ by telling us the nutrients that God placed in foods are actually harmful! These diets such as the Atkins diet, keto diets, gluten free diets etc., are not healthy they are a quick fix to over eating and lack of exercise but the long term effects can be health hazardous if not deadly!

God created everything we need on this planet in order to have a healthy and yes happy life through the vegetation, fruits, and animals He provided for our well being! Now mankind is trying to remove most of this from the tables of those whom they think are not fit enough to share the air they breath! So they make up foolish but well elaborate schemes to make you change your eating habits to consume manmade products that is seriously slowly killing you and stripping your body of the nutrients it needs to function properly!

Bill Gates wants to block the sun which gives us the best source of vitamin D. He also wants people to start eating synthetic meat that loses a great deal of vitamins, minerals, and health value. Then they have made “veggie meat” which is primarily made of soy which carries the female estrogen that they use to give males going through hormone therapy before a SEX CHANGE! Making males more feminine and less of an obstacle of rebellion during warfare! I am NOT KIDDING! They have produced GMO vegetables which do not produce seeds you can PLANT! They are not REAL VEGETABLES PEOPLE! The nutrients are little to none! Making you full and fat but your body is actually wasting away!

They are trying to make it ILLEGAL IN OREGON to KLILL LIVESTOCK! Search it out! This is truth! You will not be able to consume your own livestock unless THEY DIE OF NATURAL CAUSES! No chickens, ducks, cattle, lamb, or goat! It will become a crime!

Gluten: A Benefit or Harm to the Body?

The quick answer is that it can be either, but it all depends on the individual.

What is Gluten?

Gluten is a protein naturally found in some grains including wheat, barley, and rye. It acts like a binder, holding food together and adding a “stretchy” quality—think of a pizza maker tossing and stretching out a ball of dough. Without gluten, the dough would rip easily.

Other grains that contain gluten are wheat berries, spelt, durum, emmer, semolina, farina, farro, graham, khorasan wheat, einkorn, and triticale (a blend of wheat and rye). Oats—though naturally gluten free—often contain gluten from cross-contamination when they are grown near, or  processed in the same facilities as the grains listed above. Gluten is also sold as wheat gluten, or seitan, a popular vegan high-protein food. Less obvious sources of gluten include soy sauce and modified food starch, however gluten-free options of these products are available and labeled as such to comply with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s gluten-free labeling rule.

Gluten and Health Benefits

Gluten is most often associated with wheat and wheat-containing foods that are abundant in our food supply. Negative media attention on wheat and gluten has caused some people to doubt its place in a healthful diet. There is little published research to support these claims; in fact published research suggests the opposite.

In a 2017 study of over 100,000 participants without celiac disease, researchers found no association between long-term dietary gluten consumption and heart disease risk. [1] In fact, the findings also suggested that non-celiac individuals who avoid gluten may increase their risk of heart disease, due to the potential for reduced consumption of whole grains.

  • Many studies have linked whole grain consumption with improved health outcomes. For example, groups with the highest intakes of whole grains including wheat (2-3 servings daily) compared with groups eating the lowest amounts (less than 2 servings daily) were found to have significantly lower rates of heart disease and stroke, development of type 2 diabetes, and deaths from all causes. [2-5]

Gluten may also act as a prebiotic, feeding the “good” bacteria in our bodies. Arabinoxylan oligosaccharide is a prebiotic carbohydrate derived from wheat bran that has been shown to stimulate the activity of bifidobacteria in the colon. These bacteria are normally found in a healthy human gut. Changes in their amount or activity have been associated with gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, and irritable bowel syndrome. [6,7]

When Gluten Is a Problem

What’s not great about gluten is that it can cause serious side effects in certain individuals. Some people react differently to gluten, where the body senses it as a toxin, causing one’s immune cells to overreact and attack it. If an unknowingly sensitive person continues to eat gluten, this creates a kind of battle ground resulting in inflammation. The side effects can range from mild (fatigue, bloating, alternating constipation and diarrhea) to severe (unintentional weight loss, malnutrition, intestinal damage) as seen in the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. Estimates suggest that 1 in 133 Americans has celiac disease, or about 1% of the population, but about 83% of them are undiagnosed or misdiagnosed with other conditions. [8,9] Research shows that people with celiac disease also have a slightly higher risk of osteoporosis and anemia (due to malabsorption of calcium and iron, respectively); infertility; nerve disorders; and in rare cases cancer. [10] The good news is that removing gluten from the diet may reverse the damage. A gluten-free diet is the primary medical treatment for celiac disease. However, understanding and following a strict gluten-free diet can be challenging, possibly requiring the guidance of a registered dietitian to learn which foods contain gluten and to ensure that adequate nutrients are obtained from gluten-free alternatives. Other conditions that may require the reduction or elimination of gluten in the diet include:

  • Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, also referred to as gluten sensitive enteropathy (GSE) or gluten intolerance—An intolerance to gluten with similar symptoms as seen with celiac disease, but without the accompanying elevated levels of antibodies and intestinal damage. There is not a diagnostic test for GSE but is determined by persistent symptoms and a negative diagnostic celiac test.
  • Wheat allergy—An allergy to one or more of the proteins (albumin, gluten, gliadin, globulin) found in wheat, diagnosed with positive immunoglobulin E blood tests and a food challenge. Compare this with celiac disease, which is a single intolerance to gluten. Symptoms range from mild to severe and may include swelling or itching of the mouth or throat, hives, itchy eyes, shortness of breath, nausea, diarrhea, cramps, and anaphylaxis. People who test negative for this condition may still have gluten sensitivity. This condition is most often seen in children, which most outgrow by adulthood.
  • Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH)—A skin rash that results from eating gluten. It is an autoimmune response that exhibits itself as a persistent red itchy skin rash that may produce blisters and bumps. Although people with celiac disease may have DH, the reverse is not always true.

It is important to note that gluten is a problem only for those who react negatively to it, or test positive for celiac disease. Most people can and have eaten gluten most of their lives, without any adverse side effects.

What Is a “Gluten-Free Diet”?

This is essentially a diet that removes all foods containing or contaminated with gluten. However, since gluten-containing whole grains contain fiber and nutrients including B vitaminsmagnesium, and iron, it’s important to make up for these missing nutrients. Along with consuming naturally gluten-free foods in their whole form like fruitsvegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, fish, eggs, and poultry, the following whole grains are also inherently gluten-free:

It’s also key not to rely on processed gluten-free foods that may be high in calories, sugar, saturated fat, and sodium and low in nutrients, such as gluten-free cookies, chips, and other snack foods. Often, these foods are made with processed unfortified rice, tapioca, corn, or potato flours.

The gluten-free food industry has grown 136% from 2013 to 2015 with almost $12 billion in sales in 2015. Interestingly, studies show that people who do not have celiac disease are the biggest purchasers of gluten-free products. [11] Consumer surveys show that the top three reasons people select gluten-free foods are for “no reason,” because they are a “healthier option,” and for “digestive health.” [12] For those who are not gluten-intolerant, there is no data to show a specific benefit in following a gluten-free diet, particularly if processed gluten-free products become the mainstay of the diet. In fact, research following patients with celiac disease who change to a gluten-free diet shows an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This could be partly due to improved intestinal absorption, but speculation has also focused on the low nutritional quality of processed gluten-free foods that may contain refined sugars and saturated fats and have a higher glycemic index. [13,14]



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What is Tallow? 9 Reasons You Should Eat It (+ Benefits)

What is Tallow? 9 Reasons You Should Eat It (+ Benefits)

Published on June 24, 2019Carnivore AureliusMedically reviewed & fact checked by aboard-certified doctor

What is tallow?

Table of Contents

Beef tallow is a staple in the carnivore diet. In this post, I’m going to tell you what tallow is, the 9 main benefits of eating tallow and how to make it.  

Not only will beef tallow improve the taste of your food, it has major benefits. Tallow is:

  • More stable than polyunsaturated, toxic oils
  • High in vitamins
  • Non-dairy
  • High in fat, which may increase how much fat you burn (through glucagon)
  • Has CLA, which may improve your immune system

Beef tallow used to be a staple in people’s kitchens but has been replaced by cancer causing seed oil sludge.

You’ve been brainwashed into fearing fat. But it turns out humans have evolved because of fat. 

Read more to find out about the benefits of tallow. 

What is Tallow?

Solid tallow - stable at room temperature

Beef tallow is rendered beef fat. It is cooked slowly over low heat and becomes a liquid, which you can store into containers, then later used for cooking.

I will share how you can make tallow at home below.

At the start of the 20th century tallow was the most common fat used for cooking.

However, with the rise of Crisco, the AHA and the anti fat dietary dogma, tallow was replaced with polyunsaturated seed oils like Canola Oil.

The Food Pyramid in the 1970s was the nail in the coffin. It was deemed irrefutable that animal fats cause heart disease and had to be substituted for polyunsaturated seed oils.

Well that myth has been debunked. As we now know, Ancel Keys’ study disparaging fat was flawed. And Mark Hegstead, the head of nutrition at the USDA, was bribed by the sugar industry to shift the blame for bad health away from sugar and onto saturated fat .

Not only is animal fat not harmful. It may be beneficial to your health.

The real cause of heart disease was the toxic seed oils that replaced beef tallow and animal fats in the diet.

If you’re still cooking with seed oils, there’s nothing more important you can do in your life than switching to beef tallow. Seriously. Close your computer, dump your canola oil in the garbage where it belongs. And go buy some tallow.

Beef Tallow Nutrition

Beef tallow is purely fat. It has no carbohydrates or protein. But it does have vitamins that are stored in the fat as I will discuss more below.

Beef Tallow Nutrition: Macronutrients per tablespoon and 100g serving

History of Tallow: What Is Tallow Used For

Before the masses were brainwashed by Ancel Keys, tallow was the most common fat for cooking. Tallow was prized for its stability, taste and availability. Tallow was used for everything from frying to adding flavor to soups and stews.

Tallow was loved by chefs because it has a very high smoke point beyond 400 F and it does not go rancid like other oils. Because of its high saturated fat content, it’s very stable.

Tallow was ubiquitous. This may repulse some, but it was also used for soaps, moisturizers and candles.

It’s part of my mission to restore tallow to its glory days.

9 Health Benefits of Eating Tallow

Fat made us who we are today. So it’s no coincidence that adding fat to your diet has major benefits.

Here are 9 other benefits of eating tallow.

#1. Source of Vitamin A, D and E and Fatty Acids

The fat soluble vitamins are the most important vitamins. Fat is required to absorb them and thus they are present in significant amounts in the fat of beef.

Nutrients are vital for all cellular function. They play a role in everything from growth to immune support, to brain function. Many also have antioxidant properties that can protect against diseases like cancer and Alzheimers. [*] [*].

Fatty acids like DHA and AA are critical for brain growth and neuronal function.

Brain Building Blocks

If you had to pick one food to survive in nature, it would be the fat.

The following four are present in beef tallow:

  1. Vitamin A: Tallow has more Vitamin A than muscle meat and bone marrow . Vitamin A is essential for cell differentiation, skin and eye health and immune system function
  2. Vitamin D: Plays a role in calcium absorption. Stimulates cells differentiation. Immune system health. 77% of American’s are deficient in Vitamin D [*]
  3. Vitamin E: Potent antioxidant. Prevents LDL from getting oxidized. Vitamin E intake tends to be lower in Alzheimer’s patients .
  4. Vitamin K: Cofactor of binding to calcium, which helps prevent artery calcification. Activation of MGP which inhibits calcification. Increased Vitamin K intake is associated with lower rates of heart disease
  5. Many fatty acids, including palmitoleic acid, an antimicrobial fat , omega 3s and omega 6s.

#2 Beef Tallow May Increase Fat Burning

Paradoxically, eating more fat may increase how much fat you burn.

Our body has two major hormones that regulate blood glucose and nutrient storage: Insulin and Glucagon. The two are antagonists. Insulin is a storage hormone. Glucagon is a nutrient mobilization hormone.

Ketosis occurs when Glucagon is high and Insulin is low. The high ratio between glucagon and insulin signals to your body to release nutrients from storage — i.e. body fat — and burn them for energy.

Protein increases both insulin and glucagon secretion. Fat is the only macronutrient that only increases glucagon.

Thus, if you want to burn more fat on the carnivore or keto diet, increasing, not decreasing your fat intake may be better.

Ketogenesis: how are ketones made

Additionally, beef tallow is high in Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA). Conjugated linoleic acid is a fatty acid unique to ruminants.

In this meta-analysis of 18 studies, it was shown that CLA increased body fat loss .

#3 Beef Tallow is More Stable Than Other Cooking Fats

The fatty acid profile of beef tallow is 50% saturated fat, 42% monounsaturated fat and 4% polyunsaturated fat.

Saturated fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen atoms and only have single bonds. Whereas unsaturated fatty acids have multiple double bonds.

Molecular difference between saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid

These double bonds make the fatty acids unstable.

When the AHA — i.e. the mouthpiece for Procter & Gamble — brainwashed us into fearing saturated fats, we replaced them with these unsaturated seed oils such as Canola oil and Sunflower oil.

This is one of the main vehicles that has driven our health off a cliff.

And this was great for the big consumer companies. The seeds were traditionally a waste product, so they were cheap.

As a result, of the fear he created, soybean oil consumption increased 1000x in the 20th century. Linoleic acid now is 8% of calories

What are the consequences of this shift? Well, you are what you eat.

Between 1959 and 2008, Linoleic Acid in human fat tissues increased by 136% . In this meta-analysis, the average concentration of linoleic acid in human fat tissue was 25%.

Sharp increase of linoleic acid in human fat in a 50-year period

People are walking canola oil bottles.

Because of the double bonds, these fatty acids are very unstable. When you cook with seed oils you blast your food with cancer causing radicals.

The scarier part is that even at body temperature linoleic acid can oxidize and cause free radicals . So if your body fat is composed of linoleic acid, you’re basically a microwave causing radioactive destruction internally.

Free radicals and the toxic breakdown products of Linoleic acid like HNE are implicated in almost every disease pathology.

Vegetable oils have been linked to all of the following diseases:

  • Alzheimer’s
  • Cancer
  • Insulin resistance
  • Acne
  • Heart disease
  • Autism
  • Dementia
  • Heart disease
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Leaky gut

Most importantly, it turns out that the bad cholesterol, “LDL”, is only bad when it’s damaged by unsaturated fats .

Beef tallow on the other hand has very high oxidative and thermal stability. This study showed that after 40 hours of continuous heating at 180 C, only 60% of tallow had more than 25% of oxidized biproducts. Whereas after just 6 hours at 180 C, sunflower oil was over 20% oxidized .

Cooking oils are ubiquitous and one of the most overlooked aspects of health. If you’re interested in my 5 favorite cooking oils, sign up for a link to my short guide below.

The 5 Healthiest Cooking OilsGet Access Now

#4. Tallow is Affordable

Beef tallow is highly affordable and easy to make at home.

Eating more fat will also cut down your protein intake and help you spend less.

#5. CLA May Protect against Breast Tumors and Colon Cancer

The CLA in beef tallow may protect against metastatic breast tumors.

Molecular compound difference between linoleic and conjugated lonoleic acid

Animal studies consistently show that CLA reduces mammary tumor metastasis. Relatively low levels of CLA are required for mice to experience these benefits. In this study, mammary tumor growth was suppressed when the researchers replaced vegetable fat with beef tallow.

Additionally, studies in rats have shown that a 10% beef tallow diet suppresses colon cancer

#6. Saturated Fat May Be Good for You

Saturated fat may have longevity increasing benefits. Some stem from the stability discussed above. But there are many more too.

For instance, people in Hong Kong consume 695 grams per day of meat. That even puts Ron Swanson to shame.

At that rate, you’d expect them to be practically rolling down the street and dropping like fleas from heart disease. But they actually have the world’s longest life expectancy at 84.5 years .

This study pictured below depicted similar results. Saturated fat intake is negatively correlated to heart disease in Europe.

Study showing saturated fat intake (so-called unhealthy fats) is negatively correlated to heart disease in Europe

This can be explained a number of ways:

  • Increased saturated fat intake tends to reduce carbohydrate consumption, which really causes heart disease
  • Saturated fats tend to be higher in fat-soluble nutrients, Vitamins A, D, E and K. Increased Vitamin K intake is associated with lower rates of heart disease [*]
  • Reduced vegetable oil consumption
  • Half of the fat in your brain is saturated. It is indispensable to cognitive function.
  • Caprylic acid, a saturated fat, strengthens the immune system [*]
  • Palmitoleic acid is highly anti-viral and anti-bacterial.
  • Saturated fats help build hormones [*]
  • Cell membranes are 50% saturated fat
  • Saturated fats increase HDL, the “good cholesterol”
  • Scientists have now realized LDL particle size matters more than total LDL number. Diets high in saturated fat and low in carbs increase LDL size (which is a positive) [*]
  • High fat diets leads to ketosis and reduces oxidative stress and inflammation.
  • Because saturated fats don’t have double bonds, they’re more resistant to oxidative damage [*]
  • Saturated fats have a glycemic index of 0

Lastly, studies continue to debunk the myth that saturated fat causes heart disease. This review from 2014 looking at 76 studies, found no link at all between saturated fat and heart disease .

#7  Tallow May Benefit Your Skin

It’s commonly suspected that eating a fatty diet will clog your pores and make you look like a pubescent teenager. That’s not the case in my experience.

Our cell membranes are made up of fatty acids. They are ~50% saturated fat. Tallow’s make up is almost identical, which nourishes cell membranes and keep your skin moisturized.

Sebum, the oily substance that moisturizes and protects the skin actually translates to tallow in latin. They are very similar in makeup with both being comprised of triglycerides.

The more fat I eat, the better my skin. A few more explanations:

  • High-fat diets can reduce inflammation
  • Higher fat diets reduce insulin, which is implicated in acne
  • CLA is antiviral, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory
  • Vitamin D and Vitamin E are antioxidants

Also…I have to confess. If you thought I was a crazy carnivore before, close your eyes and skip this section. But rubbing tallow on your skin is incredibly nourishing. The vitamins and fat can nourish your skin and kill unwanted microbes.

It’s basically natures botox.

How do you think my skin turned to porcelain?

Screen Shot 2019 06 20 at 3.59.38 PM

#8. Tallow is Tasty

Beef tallow has a delicious taste, and it adds a lot of flavor to food.

It’s not a coincidence either. Your body craves the nutrients and fats. That’s why it tastes so good.

#9. Tallow is “Sustainable”

Not to pile on with the sustainability buzzword, but tallow is much better for the environment than vegetable oils.

The production of certain vegetable oils, like palm oil, leads to widespread deforestation and a high carbon footprint.

Article describing widespread deforestation fo production of palm oil

Whereas tallow from locally raised, grass fed beef can actually be carbon negative.

Additionally, butchers often throw away tallow (which is absolutely crazy if you ask me…it’s like throwing gold in the dumpster). You can ask many of them for their fat trimmings (get them before they are in the dumpster) and turn them into tallow.

Below is how to make your own tallow.

How to Make Beef Tallow at Home

  1. Trim the fat off the meat
  2. Cut into 1 inch pieces
  3. Put into a stainless steel pot and fill approximately halfway
  4. Turn the burner on medium and stir every 10 minutes to make sure the heat is applied evenly
  5. Let it reduce until the chunks melt. This should take approx 30 minutes
  6. There will be “fried” chunks…these are an awesome snack
  7. Pour the liquid into containers and refrigerate.


Beef tallow is a staple of the carnivore diet. You’ve been brainwashed into believing fat and steak are bad for you.

Humans are carnivores and food is information. If you feed yourself what you have evolved to eat you will thrive. If you shock your body with new and processed sludge, your body will revolt.

The choice is yours. The carnivore diet will give you back control of your health.

We’ve talked about a lot here, and I really hope that you get a lot out of this article. It wasn’t easy for me to learn all this information – it took me years to learn about these things and improve my own health.

It doesn’t have to take that long for you. If you want to continue this journey and start improving your health, check out my carnivore diet meal plan here.

I have myself this past year (2020) made many lotions, shaving creams, and soaps using tallow. Because the LORD has placed it in my spirit to take care of His Temple which is our bodies that are born again. Read the following benefits of using tallow on your skin.



It is ultra rich in the same kinds of lipids that are found naturally in youthful, healthy looking skin.  Grass fed tallow also contains fat-soluble Vitamins A, D, E & K.  All intrinsically balanced by nature, with no further improvement or enrichment needed.

Healthy, well functioning skin forms a protective barrier that prevents moisture loss and protects against injury, infection and inflammation

The fatty acids in pure grass fed tallow are similar in molecular structure and composition to those found in the protective outer layer of human skin and in naturally produced skin oils (sebum).
This makes grass fed tallow highly skin compatible, allowing it to absorb easily into the skin to improve the protective barrier function of the skin, prevent moisture loss and regenerate the appearance of healthy, youthful looking skin.

For Ecology Creams, certified organic, grass fed beef suet (the highly prized, nutrient-dense fat from around the kidneys) is sourced from carefully selected Australian organic farmers.

It is processed with care by hand and gently rendered at low heat to produce a super-high quality, pure tallow that is worthy of being our #1 Hero Ingredient.

Shane from Cherry Tree Organics
Shane from Cherry Tree Organics

The cows are ethically farmed using certified organic practices. They live relatively stress free and eat their natural diet, multiple varieties of grass and green forage.

This means their fat stores have an optimal ratio of Omega 3 to Omega 6 essential fatty acids, almost 1:1.

Ecology Skincare is also practising incredible sustainability.
We are re-purposing an animal by-product that would otherwise be discarded, and turning it into a beautifully pure, skin nourishing ingredient.

The amazing quality of the soil and variety of grasses these cows eat
The amazing quality of the soil and variety of grasses these cows eat


Pure grass fed tallow contains the same kinds of fatty acids that are found naturally in youthful, healthy looking skin

These beneficial fatty acids include:


These are both found in the protective outer layer of the skin and in sebum. These fatty acids have moisturising, softening, regenerative and anti-inflammatory properties. Stearic acid improves skin’s suppleness and flexibility, aiding with damage repair and barrier function. Oleic acid (Omega 9) also helps the other active components penetrate deeply into the skin.


Has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.


Is the most active anti-microbial found in our sebum. Palmitoleic acid is also a basic building block of our skin, but it’s production declines with age.


Aids with smoothing the appearance of skin and helps to improve barrier protection. It’s production in skin also declines with age.


These essential fatty acids have a role in maintaining the structural integrity and barrier function of skin, they also influence inflammatory and immune responses in the skin.


All of which are particularly nurturing for the skin, and are only naturally found together in animal products.

All of these qualities together make this Certified Organic, Grass Fed Tallow a very special and unique Hero Ingredient and a solid base for our high quality Ecology Creams

Happy Cherry Tree Organics Cows

Below I will share with you what you need to GET HEALTHY, BE HEALTHY, AND STAY HEALTHY!

Vitamin B12, D, E, Magnesium, Copper, Selenium & Zinc


Vitamin C content of Pine needles

12 Replies

*** This post originally had an error in the calculation, and have been corrected based on John’s comment ***

Pine Needle Tea

Saw discussion about native Americans treating Scurvy with Pine needles.

A quick search on the Internet gives you lots of sources claiming that Pine Needles have three times as much vitamin C as various citrus fruits. The type of Pine is rarely given but usually the white pine is referred to, the fruit is variously Oranges, or Lemons.

I tried to find a source, or even the source, for the threefold claim. Found some interesting stories, including reports of successfully treating scurvy, but I was skeptical of that threefold claim. Found wonderful letter from Richard Feynman to his mother where he reports that pine needle tea tastes of pine needles.

The vitamin content of common foods questions can be answered by the Google search engine itself, it has the USDA food content information available. as a result a suitable query will give rough nutritional guidance.

The nutritional need of a full grown man is just under 100mg vitamin C a day.

Oranges 0.45mg/g
Lemons 0.53mg/g
Limes 0.29mg/g

So eating an average Orange a day is about 80% of your vitamin C requirement.

Finding reliable data on the vitamin C content of Pine needles proved a lot harder, not least most of it is buried behind academias’ paywalls and I can’t be bothered to fight that for a trivial question.

USDA Forestry Service Research Note SE-124 “Seasonal changes in carbohydrates and ascorbic acid of white pine and possible relation to Tipburn sensitivity” found an Ascorbic acid range of 0.7 to 1.9mg/g

Results vary with assay technique, season, location, etc. Highest number is more than three times the average orange, you then have to extract the vitamin C, and whilst water soluble a long boiling will probably only extract a proportion of the available vitamin C and will start to degrade it. That said if most of the water you drank each day was boiled with pine needles, this could be a sufficient source of vitamin C alone.

Some sources refer to tea made with Pine needles and bark, and to flavinoids in the bark preserving vitamin C. I’m guessing much of the marketing hype around “bark extracts” is probably just hype. The chemicals involved are all Tannins, and as such likely to make your pine needle tea bitter. Both pine needles and the bark contain a whole host of chemicals, and whilst a lot of folk have drunk quite a bit, there are some questions over safety in pregnancy. So by all means try pine needle tea, but have realistic expectations, and avoid large amounts if pregnant.

As regards rescue by native Americans, I suspect if you are vitamin C deficient in such areas it is likely that you lacked the skills to get an adequate diet from the local area, whilst the tea probably helped, it may well be that the big contribution from the native Americans to folk in such a quandary was basic survival skills for the harsh north.

Curious fact, some citrus fruit have more vitamin C weight for weight in the peel than the fruit, good luck eating comparable amounts. This entry was posted in Skepticism on  by Simon Waters.



Vitamin C and Ascorbic Acid Are Not the Same Thing

January 13, 2014Vitamin C and Ascorbic Acid Are Not the Same ThingFood & WaterMedicineNatural Health

We have been trained in this country to think of many things as isolated features.  Whether it is nutrition, or medicine, or even how we examine ourselves relative to the environment we live in, we are convinced that we can understand complex structures and processes by understanding the individual parts.  This belief has led to a tremendous amount of confusion, failure of medicine, and poor nutritional practices.  A classic example of this confusion is osteoporosis, a progressive decrease in bone density that creates a risk of fractures.  This condition was long treated with calcium supplementation.  However, simply supplementing with this mineral can lead to calcium being deposited in the wrong place (i.e., not in the bones), such as in the joints (leading to osteoarthritis) and in the blood vessels (leading to atherosclerosis).  Calcium has several co-factors it needs to work properly in the body, such as vitamin D, vitamin K2, and magnesium, along with saturated fat (to assist with the incorporation of calcium in the bones) and exercise (to stress the bones). Without these co-factors, some of the calcium ends up in the wrong place.  This example clearly points to the logical fallacy of thinking that a given health issue can be repaired by supplementing with a single nutritional factor.

In some cases, our level of misunderstanding goes even further.  Not only do we think of vitamin C also operating on its own, we have been taught to think of vitamin C as synonymous with ascorbic acid.  It turns out that both of these are incorrect.  First, vitamin C does not operate alone.  It requires co-factors to function and prevent its degradation.  Best known of these is vitamin P (using the older name), which are a group of water-soluble polyphenols known as flavonoids (the modern name).  These important compounds are found in varying degrees in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables.  Second, ascorbic acid is not the entirety of vitamin C, rather it can be described as the “antioxidant wrapper” that co-occurs with the other parts of vitamin C:  flavonoids, rutin, the enzyme tyrosinase, and several other factors that benefit blood vessel strength and the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells.  It is best not to think of vitamins as a “thing”, but rather an “activity”, which requires the interaction of many items to function.  The ascorbic acid that is added to processed food is just the ascorbic acid—it is devoid of all of the co-occurring factors of vitamin C.  By the way, synthetic ascorbic acid is manufactured through a five-step process from glucose, using either acetone or a genetically modified microbe as part of the process.

Vitamin C is critical to maintain the health of our body.  It is necessary for the formation of collagen and wound repair.  It is needed for strong blood vessel walls, lactation, and adrenal gland function.  It is an important antioxidant, protecting the cellular fluids from free-radical damage.  Further, it resupplies vitamin E with electrons (vitamin E protects the cell membranes from free-radical damage) and it neutralizes the positive charge on toxic heavy metals, ultimately helping the body to excrete them.  We could go on because vitamin C is required for over 300 metabolic functions in the body.  Acquiring the natural form (i.e., the form found in fresh food) is the most beneficial way to acquire this vitamin.

We have been further duped in this country to consider oranges and other citrus fruits to be excellent sources of vitamin C.  Although citrus fruits do contain vitamin C, there are many sources that are significantly higher.  For example, rose hips contain 10–100 times the vitamin C content as oranges (depending on the species examined).  And for the record, some species of rose contain far more vitamin C than acerola or camu camu.  During the growing season, there are a number of other wild plants that can be foraged for that contain more vitamin C than oranges, including currants and gooseberries, baked-apple berries, persimmons, elderberries, strawberries, and many greens (e.g., amaranth, goosefoot, pokeweed, wild leek, and watercress).  Even during the winter season, several evergreen trees yield high amounts of vitamin C, including eastern white pine leaves, northern white cedar leaves, red spruce leaves, eastern white pine inner bark, and balsam fir leaves (listed in ascending order of vitamin C content; all of these are easily prepared through using the material to make tea).  As well, certain uncooked animal foods, such as liver, kidneys, and adrenal glands, serve as sources of vitamin C (and were used by northern populations of indigenous people, along with other raw animal foods and stored plant foods).

Though European explorers and colonists have a long history of succumbing to vitamin C deficiency (scurvy), this vitamin is ever present on the landscape and easy to incorporate in the diet. Relying on synthetic vitamin C does not provide the full spectrum of health benefits found in naturally occurring vitamin C and misses the point that vitamins don’t act alone but rather in concert with minerals, macronutrients, various compounds, and other vitamins.  It is entirely possible (for those interested) to live in a region that experiences cold winters and never rely on the importation of warm-climate fruits to acquire the necessary vitamin C (and all of the other vitamins, for that matter).  Eastern white pine is our primary source of vitamin C during the winter season (at 4 times the vitamin C content of oranges).  Through this food (as tea) we are also supplied with large amounts of proanthocyanidins, the phenolic compounds found in red wine that promote cardiovascular health and have an antioxidant ability 20 times that of vitamin C.  I encourage you to give it a try; you might just enjoy the health benefits that eastern white pine (and other wild members of the pine family) has on your health.

Tagged: vitamin cascorbic aciddifference between vitamin c and ascorbic acidpinus strobuspine needle

It does not stop there, you NEED Vitamin D as well. The sun is the best source of Vitamin D that God created, BUT Bill Gates wants to BLOCK THE SUN, then there are chemtrails falling daily with nanoparticles that buries into your body which they are called Morgellons. Also, they have promoted such a great fear of “sun cancer” people will lather themselves up with sunblock that the sun cannot even penetrate your skin feeding you the much needed vitamin D, but they are not stupid, scientists know the best way for the body to absorb the Vitamin D is through the eyes! So they promote sunglasses to block OUT THE UV RAYS! Many sunglass company making expensive glasses in order to promote the haves from the have nots, as well as stating if you wear sunglasses you will not get wrinkles as fast. Appealing to the pride of life on all counts.

So what other foods can be used to help you get your true Vitamin D? ONE in the produce aisle.

The Only Source Of Vitamin D
In The Produce Aisle
Why Vitamin D Is Important
Although the majority of Americans consume sufficient amounts of most nutrients, vitamin D is consumed by many individuals in amounts below the Estimated Average Requirement.

2 The 2015-2020 Dietary
Guidelines for Americans identified vitamin D as a nutrient of public health concern because low intakes
are associated with health concerns. 2 Vitamin D helps build and maintain strong bones by helping the body
absorb calcium, therefore insufficient levels can lead to rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults.

Table 1: Recommended Dietary
Allowances (RDAs) For Vitamin D3
Age Male Female Pregnancy Lactation
0-12 months* 10 mcg 10 mcg
1-13 years 15 mcg 15 mcg
14-18 years 15 mcg 15 mcg 15 mcg 15 mcg
19-50 years 15 mcg 15 mcg 15 mcg 15 mcg
51-70 years 15 mcg 15 mcg

70 years 20 mcg 20 mcg

Acquiring Vitamin D through your…eyes?

July 14, 2011UncategorizedLeave a comment

During the few short months of summer we experience here in New England we all do our best to get outside, enjoy the beautiful weather and “obtain our vitamin D”. With all the research out there showing the benefits of vitamin D on bone health, enhancing mood, preventing sickness, preventing tooth decay, optimizing hormone levels, and preventing cancer we could all benefit from getting a little sun on our bodies. However did you know that getting a little sun in your eyes can actually be just as beneficial?

After recently reading an article in an older edition of the popular family wellness magazine “Pathways”, I came across a write-up that addressed the importance of light, specifically full spectrum light, on the eyes. Full spectrum light is defined as light that includes a balance of wavelengths from all colors of the visible spectrum including ultraviolet and infrared. Although this form of light (aka “natural light”) is most commonly recognized as benefiting health when it strikes the skin, the same is also true when it strikes the eyes and plays a vital role in body chemistry. According to two researchers, German Ophthalmologist Fritz Hollwich, MD as well as John Ott, Hon. D. Sci, the array of bodily organs and systems that depend on full spectrum light is astounding. “When the eyes are exposed to natural light the pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal glands, ovaries, testes, pancreas, liver, and kidneys all function better.” In fact, when studies were performed using full spectrum florescent lights vs. cool-white light bulbs (which allows strong yellow light but is deficient in most other wavelengths and contains no ultraviolet or infrared light) it was shown that “the development of the male sex organs was only one-fifth as great in hamsters under the cool-white light as compared to hamsters under full spectrum light”. This is primarily due to the lack of vitamin D (which is naturally made in the body when exposed to sunlight) necessary to synthesize Testosterone, a steroid hormone. Also interesting was another hamster study in which those hamsters without enough direct sunlight through the eyes, more particularly through the retina of the eye, had sleep disorders. Since the hypothalamus was not stimulated due to lack of light, the pituitary and pineal glands could not be influenced to make proper body chemicals and this caused a disruption in the animal’s diurnal rhythms affecting proper sleep. These same effects can be seen in people who are always indoors. A third and final study the “Pathways” article touched upon was one involving children. It mentioned that children under full spectrum lights in school had fewer cavities in their newly formed permanent teeth, whereas ten times as many children under cool-white bulbs had new cavities. This study was also confirmed using hamsters and showed that hamsters placed under cool-white bulbs 12 hours per day for 15 weeks had 5 times more cavities and 10 times greater tooth loss than hamsters placed under a more natural full spectrum light. This again demonstrates the importance of vitamin D on bone health.

What all this great research seems to suggest is that natural aka full spectrum light (which contains ultraviolet and infrared light) is necessary for increasing and maintaining health despite the popular belief that these particular light rays are damaging. In fact, in our society today, especially during the heat of summer, we do everything possible to avoid these rays- whether it is slathering toxic sunscreen on the largest organ of our body (our skin) or blocking our eyes with the newest and most effective UV light blocking sunglasses- all in an attempt to avoid what we have been brought up to fear- poor eye site and blistering sunburns leading to cancer. Unfortunately, by doing these things we are actually being counter-productive to our bodies and purposely avoiding a means to good health because of the bad name UV rays have been given. In fact, the article mentions that there has never been any research showing the health benefits of blocking UV light to the eyes yet it is impossible to find sunglasses that don’t block this type of ray. In conclusion, the article recommends either getting outside for 20-60 minutes without wearing glasses, or functioning under full spectrum lighting indoors rather then cool-white lighting. Also if you are unable to do either, the article further recommends that Vitamin D can be acquired through supplementation of distilled Cod Liver Oil which is high in vitamins A and D but has all the heavy metals removed or to check with your naturopathic physician. Of course, getting adjusted regularly can help your body function better and allow all your hormones and body systems to work at 100% to make its own vitamin D when you are exposed to the ideal environment/light. I thought this was an interesting article to share especially during these beautiful sun-lit days of summer and figured it may cause you to re-evaluate and perhaps question some of your everyday practices. Wishing you a wonderful remainder of this awesome season and better health every day.
Dr. Denise Ingrando 🙂


Our bodies also need magnesium as well and we just do not get enough of it in our bodies these days. If you are in the western world more than likely your diet consists of a lot of junk food. Food that has little to zero nutrients but will make you full as well as fat and unhealthy! A person can be fat, full, and dies of starvation! I am not even kidding a full stomach on pure junk with no nutritional value will kill you!

What Does Magnesium Do for Your Body?

Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in your body.

It’s involved in over 600 cellular reactions, from making DNA to helping your muscles contract (1Trusted Source).

Despite its importance, up to 68% of American adults don’t meet the recommended daily intake (2Trusted Source).

Low magnesium levels have been linked to many negative health outcomes, including weakness, depression, high blood pressure and heart disease.

This article explains what magnesium does for your body, its health benefits, how to increase your intake and the consequences of getting too little.

Maintains Healthy Brain Function

Magnesium plays an important role in relaying signals between your brain and body.

It acts as the gatekeeper for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which are found on your nerve cells and aid brain development, memory and learning (3Trusted Source).

In healthy adults, magnesium sits inside the NMDA receptors, preventing them from being triggered by weak signals that may stimulate your nerve cells unnecessarily.

When your magnesium levels are low, fewer NMDA receptors are blocked. This means they are prone to being stimulated more often than necessary.

This kind of overstimulation can kill nerve cells and may cause brain damage (4Trusted Source).


Magnesium acts as the gatekeeper for NMDA receptors, which are involved in healthy brain development, memory and learning. It prevents nerve cells from being overstimulated, which can kill them and may cause brain damage.

Maintains a Healthy Heartbeat

Magnesium is important for maintaining a healthy heartbeat.

It naturally competes with calcium, which is essential for generating heart contractions.

When calcium enters your heart muscle cells, it stimulates the muscle fibers to contract. Magnesium counters this effect, helping these cells relax (5Trusted Source6Trusted Source).

This movement of calcium and magnesium across your heart cells maintains a healthy heartbeat.

When your magnesium levels are low, calcium may overstimulate your heart muscle cells. One common symptom of this is a rapid and/or irregular heartbeat, which may be life-threatening (7Trusted Source).

What’s more, the sodium-potassium pump, an enzyme that generates electrical impulses, requires magnesium for proper function. Certain electrical impulses can affect your heartbeat (8Trusted Source).


Magnesium helps your heart muscle cells relax by countering calcium, which stimulates contractions. These minerals compete with each other to ensure heart cells contract and relax properly.

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Helps Regulate Muscle Contractions

Magnesium also plays a role in regulating muscle contractions.

Just like in the heart, magnesium acts as a natural calcium blocker to help muscles relax.

In your muscles, calcium binds to proteins such as troponin C and myosin. This process changes the shape of these proteins, which generates a contraction (9Trusted Source).

Magnesium competes with calcium for these same binding spots to help relax your muscles.

If your body doesn’t have enough magnesium to compete with calcium, your muscles may contract too much, causing cramps or spasms.

For this reason, magnesium is commonly recommended to treat muscle cramps (10Trusted Source).

However, studies show mixed results regarding magnesium’s ability to relieve cramps — some even finding no benefit at all (11Trusted Source).


Magnesium acts as a natural calcium blocker, helping your muscle cells relax after contracting. When magnesium levels are low, your muscles may contract too much and cause symptoms such as cramps or muscle spasms.

Health Benefits

diet rich in magnesium has been linked to many other impressive health benefits.

May Lower Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is a health concern that affects one in three Americans (12Trusted Source).

Interestingly, studies have shown that taking magnesium may lower your blood pressure (13Trusted Source14Trusted Source).

In one study, people who took 450 mg of magnesium daily experienced a fall in the systolic (upper) and diastolic (lower) blood pressure values by 20.4 and 8.7, respectively (15Trusted Source).

An analysis of 34 studies found that a median dose of 368 mg of magnesium significantly reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values in both healthy adults and those with high blood pressure (16Trusted Source).

However, the impact was significantly higher in people with existing high blood pressure (16Trusted Source).

May Reduce the Risk of Heart Disease

Several studies have linked low magnesium levels to a higher risk of heart disease.

For instance, one study found that those with the lowest magnesium levels had the highest risk of death, especially due to heart disease (17Trusted Source).

Conversely, increasing your intake may lower this risk. That’s because magnesium has strong anti-inflammatory properties, may prevent blood clotting and can help your blood vessels relax to lower your blood pressure (1Trusted Source).

An analysis of 40 studies with more than one million participants found that consuming 100 mg more of magnesium each day reduced the risk of stroke and heart failure by 7% and 22%, respectively. These are two major risk factors for heart disease (18Trusted Source).

May Improve Blood Sugar Control in Type 2 Diabetes

People with type 2 diabetes often have low magnesium levels, which may worsen the condition, as magnesium helps regulate insulin and moves sugar out of the blood and into the cells for storage (19Trusted Source).

For instance, your cells have receptors for insulin, which need magnesium to function properly. If magnesium levels are low, your cells can’t use insulin effectively, leaving blood sugar levels high (20Trusted Source21Trusted Source22Trusted Source).

Increasing magnesium intake may reduce blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes.

An analysis of eight studies showed that taking a magnesium supplement significantly reduced fasting blood sugar levels in participants with type 2 diabetes (23Trusted Source).

However, the beneficial effects of magnesium on blood sugar control have only been found in short-term studies. Long-term studies are needed before a clear recommendation can be made.

Can Improve Sleep Quality

Poor sleep is a major health problem around the world.

Taking magnesium may improve sleep quality by helping your mind and body relax. This relaxation helps you fall asleep faster and may improve your sleep quality (24Trusted Source).

In a study in 46 older adults, those taking a magnesium supplement daily fell asleep faster. They also noticed improved sleep quality and decreased insomnia symptoms (25Trusted Source).

What’s more, animal studies have found that magnesium can regulate melatonin production, which is a hormone that guides your body’s sleep-wake cycle (26Trusted Source27Trusted Source).

Magnesium has also been shown to bind to gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) receptors. The hormone GABA helps calm down nerve activity, which may otherwise affect sleep (28Trusted Source29Trusted Source).

May Help Combat Migraines

Several studies have shown that low magnesium levels may cause migraines.

One study found that participants with migraines had significantly lower magnesium levels than healthy adults (30Trusted Source).

Increasing your magnesium intake could be a simple way to combat migraines (31Trusted Source32Trusted Source).

In one 12-week study, people with migraines who took a 600-mg magnesium supplement experienced 42% fewer migraines than before taking the mineral (33Trusted Source).

That said, most of these studies only notice a short-term benefit of taking magnesium for migraines. More long-term studies are needed before making health recommendations.

May Help Reduce Symptoms of Depression

Low levels of magnesium have also been linked to symptoms of depression.

In fact, one study in over 8,800 people found that among adults aged 65 and under, those with the lowest intake of magnesium had a 22% greater risk of this condition (34Trusted Source).

One reason for this is that magnesium helps regulate your brain function and mood.

Several studies have shown that supplementing with magnesium may reduce symptoms of depression. Some studies even found it to be as effective as antidepressant drugs (35Trusted Source36Trusted Source).

Although the link between magnesium and depression is promising, many experts still believe that more research in this area is needed before giving recommendations (37Trusted Source).


Higher magnesium intakes have been linked to health benefits such as a lower risk of heart disease, fewer migraines, reduced symptoms of depression and improved blood pressure, blood sugar levels and sleep.

Dietary Sources

Few people meet the recommended daily intake (RDI) of 400–420 mg for men and 310–320 mg for women (38).

However, this mineral is found in plenty of delicious foods (39):

AmountRDI (based on 400 mg/day)
Pumpkin seeds0.25 cup (16 grams)46%
Spinach, boiled1 cup (180 grams)39%
Swiss chard, boiled1 cup (175 grams)38%
Black beans, cooked1 cup (172 grams)30%
Flaxseeds1 ounce (28 grams)27%
Beet greens, boiled1 cup (144 grams)24%
Almonds1 ounce (28 grams)20%
Cashews1 ounce (28 grams)20%
Dark chocolate1 ounce (28 grams)16%
Avocado1 medium (200 grams)15%
Tofu3.5 ounces (100 grams)13%
Salmon3.5 ounces (100 grams)9%

If you cannot meet your daily magnesium needs through foods alone, consider taking a supplement. They are widely available and well-tolerated.

Supplements that are well-absorbed include magnesium glycinate, gluconate and citrate. Avoid taking magnesium with zinc as it may reduce absorption.

It’s best to speak to your doctor before taking magnesium, since it can interact with common medications for high blood pressure, antibiotics or diuretics.


Magnesium is found in many delicious foods, which makes it easy to increase your daily intake. Supplements are also well-tolerated. However, if you take medications, speak to your doctor to avoid adverse interactions.

The Bottom Line

Magnesium is a mineral involved in hundreds of cellular reactions.

It’s important for making DNA and relaying signals between your brain and body.

It competes with calcium, ensuring your heart and muscles contract and relax properly, and can even improve migraines, depression, blood pressure, blood sugar levels and sleep quality.

Yet, few people meet the recommended daily intake of 400–420 mg for men and 310–320 mg for women.

To increase your intake, eat foods rich in magnesium such as pumpkin seeds, spinach, cashew nuts, almonds and dark chocolate.

Supplements can be a handy option, but make sure to speak to your doctor if you’re taking other medications.


The following is an article on how magnesium can be absorbed through your skin as well.

Your body needs 16 essential minerals to be able to perform its functions in an optimal manner, magnesium is one of these minerals.

It plays a key role in more than 300 enzymatic reactions inside your body, with major benefits in calcium absorption, bone formation and maintenance of healthy heart muscles.

Our goal is to help your body achieve healthy levels of magnesium through our line of transdermal magnesium products which includes bath flakes, sprays, lotions, creams, and gels.

To give a clearer idea of our technology, let’s begin by explaining what transdermal means.

What does transdermal mean


Transdermal is a term used to describe a method of application where the active ingredient travels through the skin to reach the blood for distribution all over the body.

If you’re familiar with nicotine patches for smokers, that’s actually how they work.

You may be wondering how these compounds travel through the skin—the most common route is called the intracellular pathway. This means that the active ingredients pass through the small spaces between the cells of your skin to get to the blood vessels and into the bloodstream. The blood then carries these compounds to where they need to go.

So what are the differences between the terms ‘transdermal’ and ‘topical’?

Many people confuse both terms, but transdermal and topical routes of administration are very different. While transdermal gels, sprays, and creams deliver active ingredients to the bloodstream, topical ones are meant to work locally where you apply them only.

Topical products are formulated to affect the skin itself without reaching the bloodstream to avoid systemic effects.

As for transdermal versus oral administration routes of medicine, they both offer systemic absorption and distribution via the bloodstream to various body tissues and organs.

The advantage of adopting the transdermal route over the conventional oral pathway is avoiding the unwanted first-pass effect of metabolism in the digestive system. This is why transdermal administration allows for better bioavailability.

In a 2010 study published by the European Journal of Nutraceutical Research to determine the impact of transdermal magnesium treatment on serum levels and whole body calcium to magnesium (CaMg) ratios, researchers found an average increase of 59.5% in the cellular magnesium levels of 89% of participants after twelve weeks of treatment with 31% saturated magnesium chloride solution.

To achieve the same results via oral route using the same concentration of active ingredients, you’d have to undergo treatment for a period of 9 to 24 months.

Transdermal supplements are typically applied as patches or ointments on the skin to deliver the active ingredient into the blood circulation. They’re widely adopted in long-term hormonal therapy, chronic heart disease, as well as for quitting smoking.

Transdermal magnesium FAQs

By now, you may be having a lot of questions regarding the absorption of magnesium through the skin, so let’s answer some common ones:

Does magnesium absorb through the skin?

Yes, magnesium can get absorbed into the body through application of the mineral to the skin in the form of solutions, creams or oils containing magnesium chloride salt.


Does magnesium oil cause dry skin?

Magnesium oil is good for overall skin health, however it can sometimes dry out the skin as it is a natural salt based solution. Our lotions and body butters are combined with skin-kind ingredients to help boost skin. The products contain essential magnesium chloride with deeply rich, intensively moisturising ingredients.

Why does magnesium oil sting the skin?

There’s a couple of reasons why your skin may sting when you apply magnesium oil, but it’s important for you to understand that this isn’t an allergic reaction, simply because magnesium is already naturally found within the body and is crucial to maintain healthy functions.

Your skin stinging or tingling may be the result of:

  • low levels of cellular magnesium
  • the movement of large magnesium molecules as they’re rapidly absorbed across the epidermis
  • application of too much magnesium oil per area
  • applying the magnesium oil on very dry or broken skin

Can magnesium cause a skin rash?

Taken in correct doses, magnesium doesn’t cause any form of skin allergies, including a skin rash.

It’s also extremely rare for magnesium to cause allergic reactions with an overdose of transdermal supplements since the body actively eliminates excess amounts.

Plus, overdosing side-effects are mainly related to oral administration that can cause laxative effects.

What does magnesium do for skin?

Magnesium offers numerous positive effects on the skin since it’s involved in hundreds of biochemical processes within your body.

Magnesium skin benefits include the following:

  • Enhanced skin elasticity and hydration
  • Antioxidant action against harmful free radicals
  • Delaying the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines
  • Soothing effects for redness in skin
  • Promotes a younger and healthier look

Can too much magnesium cause itchy skin?

Magnesium may cause an itch because of the absorption dynamics, applying too much product per area, or applying the product directly over broken skin. It’s never an allergic reaction.

Again, suffering from side-effects due to severe overdose of magnesium is extremely rare in individuals with healthy kidneys.

Moreover, the most common signs of an overdose are nausea, vomiting, and stomach upset. All are risks of oral administration, not transdermal.

Does magnesium help skin?

Yes, as we mentioned above, magnesium can help with skin problems such as wrinkles, fine lines, dryness, inflammation and redness.

Can magnesium get into your bloodstream through the skin?

Yes, magnesium can permeate through the skin into your bloodstream from application of magnesium chloride products to the skin.

Can magnesium oil make your skin cold?

No, there’s no evidence of such claims.

How much transdermal magnesium should I use?

According to Government Dietary Recommendations, the amount of magnesium your body needs per day is:

  • 300 mg for males aged 19 to 64 years
  • 270 mg for females aged 19 to 64 years

However, it is important to note that there is no upper tolerable limit for transdermal magnesium.

Is transdermal magnesium better than oral?

Transdermal magnesium is ideal for individuals who struggle taking tablets. It absorbs quickly and effectively into the skin, and uses a pure form of magnesium chloride. Transdermal magnesium is also ideal if you have digestive issues when taking supplements, as it enters the body quickly, bypassing the digestive system.

Magnesium Flakes


The bestselling product in our magnesium range, Magnesium Flakes can offer an efficient solution to raising your levels from the comfort of your bath.

Magnesium bath flakes, also known as magnesium bath salts, are designed to be added to your bath or footbath. It’s a highly concentrated form of magnesium supplementation, containing 47% magnesium chloride salt derived from a natural source below the earth’s crust.

Magnesium flakes offer the ultimate relaxation time for your body to help soothe aching and fatigued muscles, all the while providing effective magnesium absorption.

For your bath, add 250g Magnesium Flakes (roughly 2 cups) per bath. Lie and relax in the water for at least 20 minutes.

For your footbath, add 150g Magnesium Flakes (roughly 1 cup) to approx. 5 litres of water, enough to cover the feet. Sit and enjoy it for 20 minutes.

A magnesium bath is recommended 2 to 3 times a week. With such frequency, a 5kg bag will last you for 20 applications.

Dosage: 1kg of Magnesium Flakes contains 120g of elemental magnesium.

Click this link for more on magnesium flakes

Click this link for information on the difference between flakes and Dead Sea salts

Magnesium Sprays

Magnesium oil sprays are also a very popular option that you can use for general magnesium intake, joint therapy, muscle recovery, and sleep enhancement.

Magnesium sprays are easy to apply anytime throughout the day. The best time, however, is following a warm bath or shower while your skin pores are open to boost absorption.

The general recommended application is to spray between 5 and 10 sprays around the body then massage the solution into the skin to stimulate absorption – little and often is key. A 100ml spray bottle contains 600 sprays, lasting you about 100 to 120 applications.

Click this link for more on magnesium oil sprays

Original Magnesium Oil Body Spray


The original body spray is our most popular spray and it also happens to be the most effective in terms of saturation. It contains 31% magnesium chloride hexahydrate.

The original BetterYou Magnesium Oil Body Spray promotes natural muscle recovery, supports and improves calcium absorption.

Dosage: 10 sprays deliver of the original body spray provides 200mg (57% NRV) of optimally absorbable elemental magnesium.

Magnesium Sleep Body Spray


As you can tell from its name, this body spray works to soothe the senses and calm the body for a restful sleep. It contains 28% magnesium chloride hexahydrate, lavender and chamomile.

Dosage: 10 sprays deliver of the body spray provides 75mg of optimally absorbable elemental magnesium.

Magnesium Joint Body Spray

With a focus on supporting normal joint functions, this magnesium oil spray is designed to help keep your flexibility and supple movement. It contains magnesium chloride hexahydrate, glucosamine sulphate, menthol, and eucalyptus oil.

Dosage: 10 sprays deliver of the joint spray provides 100mg of optimally absorbable elemental magnesium, as well as 50mg of glucosamine.

Magnesium Muscle Body Spray


The Magnesium Muscle Body Spray is mainly concerned with helping you recover from tiredness and fatigue. It supports muscle functions, aids in electrolyte balance, and backs you up through strenuous exercise.

The Muscle spray contains magnesium chloride hexahydrate, lemon oil, arnica and capsicum.

Dosage: 10 sprays deliver of the recovery spray provides 150mg of optimally absorbable elemental magnesium.

Magnesium Sensitive Body Spray

This magnesium spray is specially designed for people with sensitive skin, those who experience tingles or stings during the application of other higher concentration magnesium sprays, as well as children.

Dosage: 10 sprays deliver of the oil sensitive spray provides 100mg (28% NRV) of optimally absorbable elemental magnesium

Magnesium Lotions

Magnesium lotions, also including creams and butter, are similar to sprays in terms of benefits and application techniques. They’re simple and quick to use, with effective magnesium absorption across the collection.

Generally, you should apply 5ml (4 pumps) of product around your body and follow up with a thorough massage into your skin to boost absorption. The best time to apply lotions, creams, and butter is after a warm bath or shower while your pores are open.

A 180ml bottle of magnesium lotion (or butter) should last you for 36 applications.

Magnesium Sleep Lotion

Magnesium Sleep Lotion is a soothing blend aiming to relax your muscles, relax your mind, and help you get better sleep. It contains magnesium chloride, lavender oil, and chamomile oil.

Dosage: 5ml of Magnesium Sleep Lotion delivers a minimum of 120mg of optimally absorbable elemental magnesium.

Magnesium Sleep Lotion Junior


Designed for children aged 1 years and above, this lotion works to provide a restful night’s sleep for your little ones with the same combination of magnesium chloride and essential oils to relax and benefit the body.

Dosage: 5ml of Magnesium Sleep Lotion Junior delivers a minimum of 37mg of optimally absorbable elemental magnesium.

Magnesium + Calcium Lotion

Promoting normal bone health, this magnesium lotion contains a perfect 1:1 ratio of magnesium to calcium for optimal delivery of these two vital nutrients, all the while leaving your skin soft and hydrated.

Dosage: 5ml (4 pumps) of Magnesium Bone Lotion delivers a minimum of 75mg of magnesium and 75mg of calcium.

Magnesium Body Butter

A deeply rich body butter, the Magnesium Body Butter offers intense moisturisation for your body to indulge you in a unique silky smooth experience.

This formula contains 15% magnesium oil, shea butter, cocoa butter, coconut oil, and vitamin E. It aids in enhancing your overall skin elasticity and structure, leaving you supple and soft.

Dosage: 5ml of Magnesium Body Butter delivers a minimum of 75mg (21.5% NRV) of optimally absorbable elemental magnesium.

Magnesium Gels

Magnesium gels are formulated to offer similar efficacy when it comes to magnesium absorption, but with a focus on regulating the release of the mineral via sustained delivery.

Our Magnesium Gel also provides a very targeted application for muscles and joints, making it ideal to use during or after exercise.

The Magnesium Gel is a highly concentrated product, containing 30% magnesium chloride hexahydrate. We recommend that you apply a pea-sized amount and massage it well into your skin for better absorption.

A great time for gel application would be following a warm shower to take advantage of your open pores while avoiding delicate spots such as the eyes.

Dosage: 1ml of gel delivers a minimum of 100mg (28% NRV) of optimally absorbable elemental magnesium, with a teaspoon providing 500mg.

Further Reading & Resources


Zinc and why it is important

20 Foods High In Zinc

Zinc is a mineral you need to include in your diet.

Mercey Livingston


Cashew bowl

We know that getting enough vitamins in our diet is important, and the same goes for minerals. And one mineral in particular that deserves a spotlight is zinc. Did you know that after iron, zinc is the most abundant mineral in the body? And that it’s needed for a ton of important processes, like maintaining the health of your immune system and allowing your body to heal?

“Zinc is going to be found in all of your tissues, and it’s required for the metabolism of protein, fats, carbohydrates. It also stabilizes cells and organ structures, helps with thyroid function, is important for vision, blood clotting, wound healing, and immune function,” says nutritionist Jessica Ash, CNC, HHC, FDN-P and founder of Jessica Ash Wellness. “It’s also important for cell division, so if we’re talking about pregnancy or women who are growing a baby, it’s very important for when cells are rapidly dividing.”, Peach and Blackberry Smoothie

Why do you need zinc in your diet?

The recommended daily amount of zinc is eight milligrams for adult women (11 during pregnancy), and 11 milligrams for adult men. So how do you know if you’re getting enough zinc in your diet (besides getting tested)? Two tell-tale signs include whether you get sick frequently and how your fingernails look.

“Zinc deficiency has been linked to poor immune function, so if you find yourself catching colds more often than usual, consider whether you’re eating enough zinc,” says Melissa Groves, RDN, LD, CLT, and founder of Avocado Grove Nutrition. “One quick way to determine if you have a deficiency: take a look at your fingernails. If you have white spots, you might want to get your zinc levels tested.”

Other issues that can come up from a zinc deficiency include slow wound healing and a poor appetite, according to Groves. Ash notes that gut and digestive issues are commonly related to low zinc levels, as are acne, mood issues, hair loss, blood sugar issues, thyroid problems, and even reproductive issues.

Getting enough zinc in your diet through the food you eat is important because your body uses it frequently, and can’t store it, according to Ash. “Zinc is not stored in the body, so you have to be getting it regularly from dietary intake since it is used all the time,” says Ash.

What are the best zinc foods?

“I’d recommend aiming to include shellfish in your diet weekly, as well as other meats throughout the week,” says Groves. If you don’t eat meat or any animal products, you can still get some zinc from your food, but you may need to consider a supplement. “If you’re on a vegetarian diet, focus on nuts and seeds, and you might want to consider a zinc supplement if you’re not getting enough,” Groves says.

Keep reading below for the top 20 food sources of zinc to find out how to incorporate enough of the important mineral into your diet.1

Oysters, 66.81 milligrams of zinc

oysters in shell on grill

Oysters are hands-down the richest source of zinc. Just three ounces of oysters gets you a whopping 66.81 milligrams of zinc, exceeding your daily recommended zinc intake. Incorporating oysters even once a week is a great way of making sure your zinc needs are met.

Alaskan king crab, 6.48 milligrams of zinc

Crab legs

With just three ounces of Alaskan king crab, you’ll be well on your way to getting your daily dose of zinc. (As if you needed another reason to go to Red Lobster.)3

Grass-fed ground beef, 5.14 milligrams of zinc

Raw ground beef

Ground beef is a great source of zinc, with just a four-ounce serving clocking in at over half of your daily need for zinc. Beef is also rich in protein and B-vitamins, making it a great option to have in your diet a few times a week.4

Beef liver, 4.5 milligrams of zinc

beef liver

If you can stomach the taste, beef liver is a great source of zinc. You can get over half of the daily recommended value of zinc in a three-ounce serving. If liver and onions are not your cup of tea, try adding chopped beef liver into your ground beef patties, meatballs, or meatloaf.5

Lobster, 3 milligrams of zinc

Lobster tail

Looking for a reason to splurge on that lobster at dinner? Here’s one. A three-ounce serving of lobster has three milligrams of zinc, nearly 40 percent of your daily value.6

Oatmeal, 2.95 milligrams of zinc

oatmeal with banana and blueberries in a white bowl on wood

If you love a warm bowl of oats in the morning, good news. Your daily serving of oats gets you nearly three milligrams of zinc, which clocks in at almost 40 percent of your daily value of zinc.7

Pumpkin seeds, 2.92 milligrams of zinc

pumpkin seeds with pumpkins

Pumpkin seeds aren’t just for fall—they make a great snack, salad topping, or addition to your trail mix any time of the year. Plus, just one ounce of pumpkin seeds gets you almost 40 percent of your daily value of zinc.8

Pork loin, 2 milligrams of zinc

Pork tenderloin

Pork loin is a popular and tasty protein option for dinner. And did you know that a four-ounce serving has two milligrams towards your daily needs for zinc? That’s 25 percent of what you need in a day.

RELATED: The easy way to make healthier comfort foods.9

Cashews, 1.59 milligrams of zinc

Cashew bowl

A handful of cashews is a tasty snack full of satisfying, healthy fat. But did you know that cashews are also a good source of zinc? In fact, a one-ounce serving will get you nearly 20 percent of your recommended total daily zinc.10

Chickpeas, 1.53 milligrams of zinc

Deryn Macey/Unsplash

Chickpeas are arguably one of the most versatile foods. From hummus (yes, that’s chickpeas!) to chickpea pasta and so much more, they are the stars of many plant-based eaters and vegans or vegetarians alike. With 1.53 milligrams of zinc per each 100-gram serving, it’s a smart choice for making sure your daily zinc needs are met.11

Chicken thighs, 1.39 milligrams of zinc

Grilled chicken thighs

Chicken, specifically the dark meat like the thighs and legs, is a great option for making sure you’re getting enough zinc in your diet. One three-ounce serving of chicken thighs contains more than one milligram of zinc, making it a great addition to your weekly menu.12

Plain, whole-milk yogurt, 1.34 milligrams of zinc

Fruit on the bottom raspberry yogurt jar

Not only is yogurt a good source of protein and calcium, but it contains a decent amount of zinc, too. An eight-ounce serving contains 1.34 milligrams of zinc. Not bad for your go-to snack or breakfast, right?13

Peas, 1.19 milligrams of zinc

Frozen peas

Peas may not have been your favorite vegetable growing up, but chances are you feel differently about them now. And if you do, good news. A 100-gram serving of green peas contains more than one milligram of zinc.14

Reduced-fat milk, 1.17 milligrams of zinc

Glass of milk

Whether you enjoy it on cereal, in smoothies, or straight from the glass, milk is one way to pack in a lot of nutrients, like calcium and vitamin D. And milk contains zinc—specifically, 1.17 milligrams of it per cup.

Swiss cheese, 0.957 milligrams of zinc

Cheese slices herbs

Who doesn’t love cheese? And if you need another reason to grab a slice, then good news. Swiss cheese contains a pretty good amount of zinc—almost one milligram per slice—which is not bad when you’re working towards that daily goal.16

Almonds, 0.885 milligrams of zinc

Tetiana Bykovets/Unsplash

While they may not be as good of a source of zinc as cashews, almonds also contain some zinc, with almost a full milligram of the mineral in a one-ounce serving. Try adding them into your favorite snack mix or trail mix, slice them on top of salads, or you can try almond butter or almond flour in your recipes.17

Cheddar cheese, 0.711 milligrams of zinc

Orange cheddar cheese

Swiss isn’t the only type of cheese that contains zinc; cheddar makes the list too. With almost one milligram of zinc per slice, cheddar cheese gets you closer to your total zinc daily value. Add a slice of cheddar to your grass-fed beef burger and you’ll meet about 75 percent of your total daily zinc goals.18

Chicken breast, 0.696 milligrams of zinc

Chicken breasts cooked

Surprisingly enough, dark meat chicken specifically gets you the most zinc per serving. But If you prefer the chicken breast, you’ll still get some zinc, with 0.696 milligrams per 87-gram serving. Maybe just try a leg, wing, or thigh next time you’re looking to boost your zinc?19

Kidney beans, 0.46 milligrams of zinc

Red kidney beans

One 100-gram serving of kidney beans is a great source of fiber and protein. It’s also a good source of zinc. Kidney beans taste great in soups, stews, or even the classic dish, red beans and rice.20

Flounder, 0.272 milligrams of zinc

If you enjoy fish, try deviating from your usual choice and go for a three-ounce serving of flounder. The white fish is mild in flavor and will get you a little bit closer to your total daily requirement of zinc.

Now that you know a variety of foods that will help you get more zinc into your diet, there’s no excuse for not eating enough of it.


20 Foods Rich in Selenium

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What is selenium?

Your body relies on selenium, an important mineral, for many of its basic functions, from reproduction to fighting infection. The amount of selenium in different foods depends on the amount of selenium in the soil where the food was grown. Rain, evaporation, pesticides, and pH levels can all affect selenium levels in soil. That makes selenium deficiency more common in certain parts of the world, though it’s relatively rare in the United States.

Regardless of where you live, certain factors can make it harder for your body to absorb selenium. For example, you may have difficulty absorbing selenium if you:

In addition, those with Graves’ disease or hypothyroidism need to pay special attention to their selenium intake as it serves a protective role for the thyroid.

How much selenium do I need?

While too little selenium can cause serious health problems, too much selenium can also be toxic. Follow these guidelines from the National Institutes of Health to determine how much selenium is right for you:

AgeRecommended daily amount of selenium
Over 14 years55 mcg
9 to 13 years40 mcg
4 to 8 years30 mcg
7 months to 3 years20 mcg
Birth to 6 months15 mcg

Women who are pregnant or lactating need up to 60 mcg of selenium per day.

Keep reading to learn which foods provide the most selenium.

1. Brazil nuts

Brazil nuts are one of the best sources of selenium. One ounce, or about six to eight nuts, contains about 544 mcg. Make sure you only eat a serving of Brazil nuts a few times a week to avoid selenium toxicity.

2. Fish

Yellowfin tuna contains about 92 mcg of selenium per 3 ounces (oz), making it an excellent source of selenium. This is followed by sardines, oysters, clams, halibut, shrimp, salmon, and crab, which contain amounts between 40 and 65 mcg.

3. Ham

Many health-conscious eaters avoid ham due to its high salt content. However, it provides about 42 mcg of selenium per 3 oz serving, or 60 percent of the recommended daily intake for adults.

4. Enriched foods

Some products, including pastas, whole wheat breads, and whole grain cereals, are enriched or fortified with selenium and other minerals. The amount of selenium in these products will vary, but you can typically get up to 40 mcg per 1 cup serving of noodles or cereal, and about 16 mcg from 2 slices of whole grain toast. Just make sure you balance enriched foods with plenty of whole, plant-based foods for optimal nutrition.

5. Pork

Three ounces of lean pork contain about 33 mcg of selenium.

6. Beef

The selenium content of beef depends on the cut, but a bottom round beef steak will provide you with about 33 mcg. Beef liver provides about 28 mcg, and ground beef offers about 18 mcg.

7. Turkey

You can get 31 mcg of selenium from 3 oz of boneless turkey. Eat a turkey sandwich on fortified whole wheat bread for extra selenium.

8. Chicken

Chicken will give you about 22 to 25 mcg of selenium per 3 oz of white meat. This translates to a serving that’s similar in size to a deck of cards, making it an easy way to add some selenium to your diet.ADVERTISEMENTCheck your vitamin levels with a micronutrient test

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9. Cottage cheese

One cup of cottage cheese provides about 20 mcg, or 30 percent of your daily recommended intake of selenium.

10. Eggs

One hard-boiled egg provides about 20 mcg of selenium. Don’t like hard-boiled? No worries, go for eggs cooked any way you like, and you’ll still get a dose of selenium.

11. Brown rice

One cup of cooked long-grain brown rice will provide you with 19 mcg of selenium, or 27 percent of the recommended daily amount. Enjoy this grain with your favorite 3 oz portion of chicken or turkey to get up to 50 mcg of selenium — almost the entire recommended daily amount for adults. You can also substitute rice for barley which provides 23mcg per 1/3 cup serving.

12. Sunflower seeds

A quarter cup of sunflower seeds provides almost 19 mcg of selenium, making them a great snack, especially if you don’t eat animal products, which tend to have higher levels of selenium.

13. Baked beans

Enjoy a cup of baked beans and you’ll get about 13 mcg of selenium along with some important fiber.

14. Mushrooms

Mushrooms are fungi that contain many nutrients, including vitamin D, iron, and about 12 mcg of selenium in a 100-gram serving. Try these 16 vegetarian-friendly recipes with mushrooms.

15. Oatmeal

One cup of regular oatmeal, cooked, will give you 13 mcg of selenium. Enjoy it for breakfast with two eggs to get 53 mcg.

16. Spinach

Spinach, cooked from frozen, will provide you with about 11 mcg of selenium per cup. It’s also packed full of folic acid and vitamin C.

17. Milk and yogurt

Milk and yogurt each contain about 8 mcg of selenium per cup, or 11 percent of your needs per day. Add some milk to your enriched cereal to up your intake.

18. Lentils

One cup of cooked lentils provides about 6 mcg of selenium, plus a healthy dose of protein and fiber. Add them to a soup with mushrooms for a vegan-friendly meal full of selenium.

19. Cashews

Dry roasted cashews offer 3 mcg per ounce. That may not seem like much, but every bit helps, especially if you follow a vegan diet. Snack on some dry roasted cashews and you’ll get a small amount of selenium, at 3 mcg per one ounce serving.

20. Bananas

One cup of chopped banana offers 2 mcg of selenium, or 3 percent of your daily recommended intake. Again, this might not seem like much, but most fruits offer only minimal traces of selenium or none at all. Add bananas to a smoothie with yogurt or your favorite oatmeal for more selenium.


8 Foods That Are High in Copper

Copper is a mineral that your body requires in small quantities to maintain good health.

It uses copper to form red blood cells, bone, connective tissue and some important enzymes.

Copper is also involved in the processing of cholesterols, the proper functioning of your immune system and the growth and development of babies in the womb (1Trusted Source).

Though it’s only needed in tiny amounts, it’s an essential mineral — meaning that you must obtain it from your diet because your body cannot produce it on its own.

It’s recommended that adults get 900 mcg of copper per day.

However, if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, you should get slightly more — 1 mg or 1.3 mg per day, respectively.

Here are 8 foods high in copper.

1. Liver

Organ meats — such as liver — are extremely nutritious.

They provide good amounts of many nutrients, including vitamin B12, vitamin A, riboflavin (B2), folate (B9), iron and choline (2).

Liver is also an excellent source of copper.

In fact, one slice (67 grams) of calf liver gives you 10.3 mg of copper — a whopping 1,144% of the Reference Daily Intake (RDI) (3).

To add flavor and zest to liver, try pan-frying it with onions or mixing it into burger patties and stews.

However, the high amounts of vitamin A in liver can harm unborn babies. Therefore, pregnant women should avoid foods extremely high in vitamin A, including liver (4Trusted Source).

SUMMARYLiver is an extremely nutritious meat. Just one slice of calf liver boasts over 11 times the RDI for copper, as well as good amounts of other important nutrients.

2. Oysters

Oysters are a type of shellfish often considered a delicacy. They can be served cooked or raw, depending on your preference.

This seafood is low in calories and high in many essential nutrients like zinc, selenium and vitamin B12.

In addition, oysters are a good source of copper, providing 7.6 mg per 3.5 ounces (100 grams) — or 844% of the RDI (5).

You may be concerned about eating oysters and other shellfish due to their high cholesterol content.

However, unless you have a certain, rare genetic condition, dietary cholesterol found in foods like oysters is unlikely to significantly raise your blood levels of cholesterol (6Trusted Source).

Keep in mind that raw oysters do carry a risk of food poisoning, so are not recommended for pregnant women or people with compromised immune systems (7Trusted Source).

SUMMARYPer 3.5 ounces (100 grams), oysters contain 8.5 times the RDI for copper. This low-calorie shellfish is also high in zinc, selenium and vitamin B12.

3. Spirulina

Spirulina is a powdered food supplement made from cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae.

Once consumed by the ancient Aztecs, it reemerged as a health food after NASA successfully used it as a dietary supplement for astronauts on space missions (8Trusted Source9).

Gram for gram, spirulina is extremely nutritious. A single tablespoon (7 grams) contains just 20 calories but packs 4 grams of protein, 25% of the RDI for vitamin B2 (riboflavin), 17% of the RDI for vitamin B1 (thiamine) and around 11% of the RDI for iron (10).

The same amount provides 44% of the RDI for copper.

Spirulina is often mixed with water to make a greenish beverage. However, if you don’t like its unusual taste, you can add it to stock, smoothies or cereal to disguise the flavor.

SUMMARYSpirulina, a dried supplement made from blue-green algae, is extremely nutritious — a single tablespoon (7 grams) gives nearly half of your daily copper needs.

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4. Shiitake Mushrooms

Shiitake mushrooms are a type of edible mushroom, native to East Asia, that have a strong umami flavor.

Four dried shiitake mushrooms (15 grams) offer 44 calories, 2 grams of fiber and a host of nutrients, including selenium, manganese, zinc, folate and vitamins B1, B5, B6 and D (11).

This portion also knocks out an impressive 89% of the RDI for copper.

SUMMARYA handful of dried shiitake mushrooms packs nearly all of your daily needs for copper. They’re also rich in other important nutrients.

5. Nuts and Seeds

Nuts and seeds are tiny powerhouses of nutrition.

They’re high in fiber, protein and healthy fats, as well as a wide range of other nutrients.

Although different nuts and seeds contain different nutrients, many hold substantial amounts of copper.

For example, 1 ounce (28 grams) of almonds or cashews boasts 33% and 67% of the RDI, respectively (1213).

Additionally, a tablespoon (9 grams) of sesame seeds packs 44% of the RDI (14).

You can enjoy nuts and seeds as a standalone snack, atop a salad or baked into a bread or casserole.

SUMMARYNuts and seeds — particularly almonds, cashews and sesame seeds — are good sources of copper. What’s more, they’re high in fiber, protein and healthy fats.

6. Lobster

Lobsters are large, muscular shellfish which live on the seabed.

Their succulent flesh makes them a popular addition to soups and bisques, though they can also simply be served on their own.

Lobster meat is low in fat, high in protein and loaded with vitamins and minerals, including selenium and vitamin B12.

It’s also an excellent source of copper.

In fact, a 3-ounce (85-gram) serving of lobster contains a phenomenal 178% of the RDI (15).

Interestingly, though low in fat, lobster is also quite high in cholesterol.

However, dietary cholesterol has little effect on blood cholesterol levels in most people, so the amount in lobster shouldn’t be a concern (16Trusted Source).

SUMMARYLobster is a delicious seafood which is low in fat, high in protein and an excellent source of copper, providing 178% of the RDI in a 3-ounce (85-gram) serving.

7. Leafy Greens

Leafy greens like spinach, kale and Swiss chard are extremely healthy, boasting nutrients like fiber, vitamin K, calcium, magnesium and folate in a minimal number of calories.

Many leafy greens contain sizeable amounts of copper.

For example, cooked Swiss chard provides 33% of the RDI for copper in a single cup (173 grams) (17).

Other greens have similar amounts, with a cup (180 grams) of cooked spinach also holding 33% of the RDI (18).

These greens can be enjoyed raw in a salad, cooked into a stew or added as a side to most meals to boost both their nutrient and copper content.

SUMMARYLeafy greens like Swiss chard and spinach are extremely nutritious, copper-boosting additions to your diet.

8. Dark Chocolate

Dark chocolate contains higher amounts of cocoa solids — as well as less milk and sugar — than regular chocolate.

Dark chocolate boasts antioxidants, fiber and several nutrients.

For example, a 3.5-ounce (100-gram) bar of dark chocolate — with 70–85% cocoa solids — provides 11 grams of fiber, 98% of the RDI for manganese and 67% of the RDI for iron (19).

The same bar also packs a massive 200% of the RDI for copper.

What’s more, consuming dark chocolate as part of a balanced diet is linked to improvements in several heart disease risk factors (20Trusted Source21Trusted Source22Trusted Source).

However, take care to not overeat dark chocolate. It’s still a high-calorie food loaded with fat and potentially sugar.

SUMMARYDark chocolate is a sweet treat that bestows a mix of beneficial nutrients, including copper. One bar alone may give you double your daily copper needs.

The Bottom Line

Copper — which is vital to your health — is found in a wide range of foods, from meat to vegetables.

Particularly good sources include oysters, nuts, seeds, shitake mushrooms, lobster, liver, leafy greens and dark chocolate.

To avoid a deficiency, be sure to include a variety of these sources in your diet.


Top 12 Foods That Are High in Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient that your body can’t make on its own, so you need to get it from your diet or supplements.

Vegetarians, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and others at risk of deficiency may want to track their diets closely to make sure they’re getting enough.

This article lists 12 foods rich in vitamin B12 to add to your shopping list.

What is vitamin B12?

This water-soluble vitamin has many essential functions in your body.

It’s necessary for keeping your nerves healthy and supporting the production of DNA and red blood cells, as well as maintaining normal brain function.

The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is about 2.4 mcg but slightly higher for pregnant or breastfeeding women (1Trusted Source).

Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the stomach with the help of a protein called intrinsic factor. This substance binds to the vitamin B12 molecule and facilitates its absorption into your blood and cells.

Your body stores excess vitamin B12 in the liver, so if you consume more than the RDI, your body will save it for future use.

You may develop a vitamin B12 deficiency if your body does not produce enough intrinsic factor, or if you don’t eat enough vitamin-B12-rich foods (2Trusted Source).

Vitamin B12 is mainly found in animal products, especially meat and dairy products. Luckily for those on vegans diets, fortified foods can be good sources of this vitamin, too (1Trusted Source3Trusted Source).

Below are 12 healthy foods that are very high in vitamin B12.

1. Animal liver and kidneys

Organ meats are some of the most nutritious foods out there. Liver and kidneys, especially from lamb, are rich in vitamin B12.

A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of lamb liver provides an incredible 3,571% of the Daily Value (DV) for vitamin B12 (4Trusted Source).

While lamb liver is generally higher in vitamin B12 than beef or veal liver, the latter two may still contain about 3,000% of the DV per 3.5 ounces (100 grams) (5Trusted Source6Trusted Source).

Lamb liver is also very high in copper, selenium, and vitamins A and B2 (4Trusted Source).

Lamb, veal, and beef kidneys are also high in vitamin B12. Lamb kidneys provide about 3,000% of the DV per 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving. They also provide more than 100% of the DV for vitamin B2 and selenium (7Trusted Source).


A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of lamb, beef, or veal liver contains up to 3,500% of the DV for vitamin B12, while the same serving of kidneys contains up to 3,000% of the DV.

2. Clams

Clams are small, chewy shellfish that are packed with nutrients.

This mollusk is a lean source of protein and contains very high concentrations of vitamin B12. You can get more than 7,000% of the DV in just 20 small clams (8Trusted Source).

Clams, especially whole baby clams, also provide great amounts of iron, with almost 200% of the DV in a 100-gram (3.5-ounce) serving of small clams (9).

Clams have also been shown to be a good source of antioxidants (10Trusted Source).

Interestingly, the broth of boiled clams is also high in vitamin B12. Canned broth has been shown to provide 113–588% of the DV per 3.5 ounces (100 grams) (11Trusted Source).


A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of clams contains up to 99 mcg of vitamin B12, which is 4,120% of the DV.

3. Sardines

Sardines are small, soft-boned saltwater fish. They’re usually sold canned in water, oil, or sauces, though you can also buy them fresh.

Sardines are super nutritious because they contain virtually every single nutrient in good amounts.

A 1-cup (150-gram) serving of drained sardines provides 554% of the DV for vitamin B12 (11Trusted Source).

Furthermore, sardines are an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to provide many health benefits, such as reducing inflammation and improving heart health (12Trusted Source).


One cup (150 grams) of drained sardines contains up to 500% of the DV for vitamin B12.

4. Beef

Beef is an excellent source of vitamin B12.

One grilled flat iron steak (about 190 grams) provides 467% of the DV for vitamin B12 ().

Also, the same amount of steak contains reasonable amounts of vitamins B2, B3, and B6, as well as more than 100% of the DVs for selenium and zinc (13Trusted Source).

If you’re looking for higher concentrations of vitamin B12, it’s recommended to choose from low fat cuts of meat. It’s also better to grill or roast it instead of frying. This helps preserve the vitamin B12 content (14Trusted Source15Trusted Source).


A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of beef contains about 5.9 mcg of vitamin B12. That’s 245% of the DV.

5. Fortified cereal

This source of vitamin B12 may work well for vegetarians and vegans, as it’s synthetically made and not derived from animal sources (16).

Although not commonly recommended as part of a healthy diet, fortified cereals can be a good source of B vitamins, especially B12. Food fortification is the process of adding nutrients that are not originally in the food.

For instance, Malt-O-Meal Raisin Bran offer up to 62% of the DV for vitamin B12 in 1 cup (59 grams) (17Trusted Source).

The same serving of this cereal also packs 29% of the DV for vitamin B6 and good amounts of vitamin A, folate, and iron (17Trusted Source).

Research shows that eating fortified cereals daily helps increase vitamin B12 concentrations (18Trusted Source19Trusted Source).

In fact, one study showed that when participants ate 1 cup (240 ml) of fortified cereal containing 4.8 mcg (200% of the DV) of vitamin B12 daily for 14 weeks, their vitamin B12 levels increased significantly (18Trusted Source).

If you choose to use fortified cereal to increase your vitamin B12 intake, make sure to choose a brand low in added sugar and high in fiber or whole grains.


Cereal fortified with vitamin B12 may also help you increase your vitamin B12 levels. One cup (59 grams) of Malt-O-Meal Raisin Bran provides 62% of the DV.

6. Tuna

Tuna is a commonly consumed fish and great source of nutrients, including protein, vitamins, and minerals.

Tuna contains high concentrations of vitamin B12, especially in the muscles right beneath the skin, which are known as dark muscles (20).

A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of cooked tuna contains 453% of the DV for the vitamin (21Trusted Source).

This same serving size also packs a good amount of lean protein, phosphorus, selenium, and vitamins A and B3 (21Trusted Source).

Canned tuna also contains a decent amount of vitamin B12. In fact, a can (165 grams) of light tuna canned in water contains 115% of the DV (22).


A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of cooked tuna provides 10.9 mcg of vitamin B12. That’s 453% of the DV.

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7. Fortified nutritional yeast

Nutritional yeast is a good vegan source of protein, vitamins, and minerals.

It’s a species of yeast especially grown to be used as food, not as a leavening agent in bread and beer.

Vitamin B12 is not naturally present in nutritional yeast. However, it’s commonly fortified, making it a great source of vitamin B12.

As with fortified cereals, the vitamin B12 in nutritional yeast is vegan-friendly because it’s synthetically made (16).

Two tablespoons (15 grams) of nutritional yeast may contain up to 733% of the DV for vitamin B12 (23Trusted Source).

One study added nutritional yeast to the diets of raw-food vegans and found it increased vitamin B12 blood levels and helped reduce blood markers of vitamin B12 deficiency (24Trusted Source).


Two tablespoons (15 grams) of nutritional yeast may provide up to 17.6 mcg of vitamin B12. That’s 733% of the DV.

8. Trout

Rainbow trout is considered to be one of the healthiest fish.

This freshwater species is a great source of protein, healthy fats, and B vitamins.

A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of trout fillet offers about 312% of the DV for vitamin B12 and 1,171 mg of omega-3 fatty acids (25Trusted Source).

Experts recommend that the combined daily intake of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) should be 250–500 mg (26Trusted Source).

Trout is also a great source of minerals such as manganese, phosphorus, and selenium (25Trusted Source).


A 3.5-ounce (100-gram) serving of trout contains 7.5 mcg of vitamin B12. That’s 312% of the DV.

9. Salmon

Salmon is well known for having one of the highest concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. However, it’s also an excellent source of B vitamins.

A half fillet (178 grams) of cooked salmon can pack 208% of the DV for vitamin B12 (27Trusted Source).

The same serving size may also provide 4,123 mg of omega-3 fatty acids (27Trusted Source).

Alongside its high fat content, salmon offers a high amount of protein, with about 40 grams in a half fillet (178 grams) (27Trusted Source).


A half fillet (178 grams) of cooked salmon offers more than 200% of the DV for vitamin B12.

10. Fortified nondairy milk

Nondairy milk is popular among those who want a nutritious vegan replacement for dairy milk.

While soy, almond, and rice milks are not naturally high in vitamin B12, they are usually fortified, making them an excellent source of this vitamin.

One example is soy milk, which can provide up to 86% of the DV for vitamin B12 in 1 cup (240 ml) (28Trusted Source).

For this reason, fortified nondairy milks could be a great option for those wanting to increase their vitamin B12 intake and avoid deficiency (29).

Similarly to the vitamin B12 in other fortified sources, the vitamin B12 in nondairy milk is synthetically made, so it’s vegan-friendly (16).


One cup (240 ml) of soy milk contains 2.1 mcg of vitamin B12, or 86% of the DV.

11. Milk and dairy products

Milk and dairy products like yogurt and cheese are great sources of protein and several vitamins and minerals, including vitamin B12.

One cup (240 ml) of whole milk supplies 46% of the DV for vitamin B12 (30Trusted Source).

Cheese is also a rich source of vitamin B12. One large slice (22 grams) of Swiss cheese can contain about 28% of the DV (31Trusted Source).

Full fat plain yogurt can also be a decent source. It has even been shown to help improve vitamin B12 status in people who are deficient in the vitamin (32Trusted Source33Trusted Source).

Interestingly, studies have shown that the body absorbs the vitamin B12 in milk and dairy products better than the vitamin B12 in beef, fish, or eggs (3435Trusted Source36Trusted Source).

For example, a study in over 5,000 people showed that dairy was more effective than fish at increasing vitamin B12 levels (36Trusted Source).


Dairy is a great source of vitamin B12. One cup of whole or full fat yogurt provides up to 23% of the RDI, and one slice (28 grams) of Swiss cheese contains 16%.

12. Eggs

Eggs are a great source of complete protein and B vitamins, especially B2 and B12.

Two large eggs (100 grams) supply about 46% of the DV for vitamin B12, plus 39% of the DV for vitamin B2 (37Trusted Source).

Research has shown that egg yolks have higher levels of vitamin B12 than egg whites, as well as that the vitamin B12 in egg yolks is easier to absorb. Therefore, it’s recommended to eat whole eggs instead of just their whites (38Trusted Source).

In addition to getting a good dose of vitamin B12, you’ll get a healthy amount of vitamin D. Eggs are one of the few foods that naturally contain it, with 11% of the DV in two large eggs (37Trusted Source).


Two large eggs (100 grams) contain 1.1 mcg of vitamin B12. That’s 46% of the DV.

Should you take vitamin B12 supplements?

Vitamin B12 supplements are recommended for people who are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

Those include older adults, pregnant or breastfeeding women, vegetarians and vegans, individuals with intestinal problems, and those who have had stomach surgery.

As with the vitamin B12 in fortified sources, the vitamin B12 in supplements is synthetically made, so it’s vegan-friendly (16).

Vitamin B12 supplements can be found in many forms. You can swallow, chew, or drink them, or place them under your tongue. Your healthcare provider can also inject you with vitamin B12.

Research has shown that vitamin B12 taken by mouth and muscular injection are equally effective at restoring vitamin B12 levels in people who are deficient in the vitamin (39Trusted Source40Trusted Source41Trusted Source).

In fact, a study found that people with low levels of vitamin B12 replenished their stores after 90 days of either supplements or injections of vitamin B12 (40Trusted Source).

However, not all vitamin B12 deficiency is caused by inadequate dietary intake. It’s sometimes caused by lack of intrinsic factor, a protein that is necessary for the efficient absorption of vitamin B12.

Lack of intrinsic factor is most common in older people and usually associated with an autoimmune disease known as pernicious anemia.

The most common treatment for pernicious anemia is lifelong vitamin B12 injections, but small amounts of vitamin B12 are absorbed without intrinsic factor. One review concluded that taking 1,000 mcg daily is an effective alternative to injections (41Trusted Source).


Vitamin B12 supplements are recommended for people who avoid animal products or with impaired absorption. They can be found in different forms, and dosages range anywhere from 150–2,000 mcg.

The bottom line

Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient that your body needs for many essential functions.

It can be found in large amounts in animal products, fortified foods, and dietary supplements. Some of the richest sources are liver, beef, sardines, clams, and dairy products.

Whether you want to increase your vitamin stores or prevent deficiency, eating these foods may considerably improve your overall health.


Vitamin E

20 Foods That Are High in Vitamin E

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Vitamin E is a group of powerful antioxidants that protect your cells from oxidative stress. Adequate vitamin E levels are essential for the body to function normally.

If you don’t get enough, you may become more prone to infections, experience impaired eyesight or suffer from muscle weakness.

Fortunately, vitamin E is widespread in foods. As a result, you are unlikely to become deficient unless your nutrient absorption is impaired.

Nevertheless, everyone should try to eat plenty of whole foods rich in vitamin E.

In the United States, 15 mg of vitamin E per day is considered enough for the vast majority of adults. This daily value (DV) is selected as a reference on nutrition labels in the US and Canada.

Below is a list of 20 foods that are high in alpha-tocopherol, which is the most active form of vitamin E (1Trusted Source).

This article also provides five lists of vitamin-E-rich foods, categorized by food group.

20 Foods High in Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a common nutrient found in most foods. A few foods, including cooking oils, seeds and nuts, are exceptionally rich sources.

1. Wheat Germ Oil — 135% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 20 mg (135% DV)

100 grams: 149 mg (996% DV)

2. Sunflower Seeds — 66% DV per serving

1 ounce: 10 mg (66% DV)

100 grams: 35 mg (234% DV)

3. Almonds — 48% DV per serving

1 ounce: 7.3 mg (48% DV)

100 grams: 26 mg (171% DV)

4. Hazelnut Oil — 43% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 6.4 mg (43% DV)

100 grams: 47 mg (315% DV)

5. Mamey Sapote — 39% DV per serving

Half a fruit: 5.9 mg (39% DV)

100 grams: 2.1 mg (14% DV)

6. Sunflower Oil — 37% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 5.6 mg (37% DV)

100 grams: 41 mg (274% DV)

7. Almond Oil — 36% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 5.3 mg (36% DV)

100 grams: 39 mg (261% DV)

8. Hazelnuts — 28% DV per serving

1 ounce: 4.3 mg (28% DV)

100 grams: 15 mg (100% DV)

9. Abalone — 23% DV per serving

3 ounces: 3.4 mg (23% DV)

100 grams: 4.0 mg (27% DV)

10. Pine Nuts — 18% DV per serving

1 ounce: 2.7 mg (18% DV)

100 grams: 9.3 mg (62% DV)

11. Goose Meat — 16% DV per serving

1 cup: 2.4 mg (16% DV)

100 grams: 1.7 mg (12% DV)

12. Peanuts — 16% DV per serving

1 ounce: 2.4 mg (16% DV)

100 grams: 8.3 mg (56% DV)

13. Atlantic Salmon — 14% DV per serving

Half a fillet: 2.0 mg (14% DV)

100 grams: 1.1 mg (8% DV)

14. Avocado — 14% DV per serving

Half a fruit: 2.1 mg (14% DV)

100 grams: 2.1 mg (14% DV)

15. Rainbow Trout — 13% DV per serving

1 fillet: 2.0 mg (13% DV)

100 grams: 2.8 mg (19% DV)

16. Red Sweet Pepper (raw) — 13% DV per serving

1 medium pepper: 1.9 mg (13% DV)

100 grams: 1.6 mg (11% DV)

17. Brazil Nuts — 11% DV per serving

1 ounce: 1.6 mg (11% DV)

100 grams: 5.7 mg (38% DV)

18. Mango — 10% DV per serving

Half a fruit: 1.5 mg (10% DV)

100 grams: 0.9 mg (6% DV)

19. Turnip Greens (raw) — 10% DV per serving

1 cup: 1.6 mg (10% DV)

100 grams: 2.9 mg (19% DV)

20. Kiwifruit — 7% DV per serving

1 medium fruit: 1.0 mg (7% DV)

100 grams: 1.5 mg (10% DV)

10 Animal Products High in Vitamin E

Many animal-based foods are also good sources of vitamin E.

1. Abalone — 23% DV per serving

3 ounces: 3.4 mg (23% DV)

100 grams: 4.0 mg (27% DV)

2. Goose Meat — 16% DV per serving

1 cup: 2.4 mg (16% DV)

100 grams: 1.7 mg (12% DV)

3. Atlantic Salmon — 14% DV per serving

Half a fillet: 2.0 mg (14% DV)

100 grams: 1.1 mg (8% DV)

4. Rainbow Trout — 13% DV per serving

1 fillet: 2.0 mg (13% DV)

100 grams: 2.8 mg (19% DV)

5. Snails — 9% DV per serving

1 ounce: 1.4 mg (9% DV)

100 grams: 5.0 mg (33% DV)

6. Crayfish — 8% DV per serving

3 ounces: 1.3 mg (8% DV)

100 grams: 1.5 mg (10% DV)

7. Fish Roe — 7% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 1.0 mg (7% DV)

100 grams: 7.0 mg (47% DV)

8. Octopus — 7% DV per serving

3 ounces: 1.0 mg (7% DV)

100 grams: 1.2 mg (8% DV)

9. Lobster — 6% DV per serving

3 ounces: 0.9 mg (6% DV)

100 grams: 1.0 mg (7% DV)

10. Cod (dried) — 5% DV per serving

1 ounce: 0.8 mg (5% DV)

100 grams: 2.8 mg (19% DV)ADVERTISEMENTCheck your vitamin levels with a micronutrient test

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10 Seeds and Nuts High in Vitamin E

Seeds and nuts are among the best sources of vitamin E.

Below are some of the richest sources of alpha-tocopherol. Many of these seeds and nuts are also high in other forms of vitamin E, such as gamma-tocopherol.

1. Sunflower Seeds — 66% DV per serving

1 ounce: 10 mg (66% DV)

100 grams: 35 mg (234% DV)

2. Almonds — 48% DV per serving

1 ounce: 7.3 mg (48% DV)

100 grams: 26 mg (171% DV)

3. Hazelnuts — 28% DV per serving

1 ounce: 4.3 mg (28% DV)

100 grams: 15 mg (100% DV)

4. Pine Nuts — 18% DV per serving

1 ounce: 2.7 mg (18% DV)

100 grams: 9.3 mg (62% DV)

5. Peanuts — 16% DV per serving

1 ounce: 2.4 mg (16% DV)

100 grams: 8.3 mg (56% DV)

6. Brazil Nuts — 11% DV per serving

1 ounce: 1.6 mg (11% DV)

100 grams: 5.7 mg (38% DV)

7. Pistachios — 5% DV per serving

1 ounce: 0.8 mg (5% DV)

100 grams: 2.9 mg (19% DV)

8. Pumpkin Seeds — 4% DV per serving

1 ounce: 0.6 mg (4% DV)

100 grams: 2.2 mg (15% DV)

9. Pecans — 3% DV per serving

1 ounce: 0.4 mg (3% DV)

100 grams: 1.4 mg (9% DV)

10. Cashew Nuts — 2% DV per serving

1 ounce: 0.3 mg (2% DV)

100 grams: 0.9 mg (6% DV)

10 Fruits High in Vitamin E

While fruits are generally not the best sources of vitamin E, many provide good amounts. Fruits are also rich in vitamin C, which cooperates with vitamin E as an antioxidant (2Trusted Source3Trusted Source).

1. Mamey Sapote — 39% DV per serving

Half a fruit: 5.9 mg (39% DV)

100 grams: 2.1 mg (14% DV)

2. Avocado — 14% DV per serving

Half a fruit: 2.1 mg (14% DV)

100 grams: 2.1 mg (14% DV)

3. Mango — 10% DV per serving

Half a fruit: 1.5 mg (10% DV)

100 grams: 0.9 mg (6% DV)

4. Kiwifruit — 7% DV per serving

1 medium fruit: 1.0 mg (7% DV)

100 grams: 1.5 mg (10% DV)

5. Blackberries — 6% DV per serving

Half a cup: 0.8 mg (6% DV)

100 grams: 1.2 mg (8% DV)

6. Black Currants — 4% DV per serving

Half a cup: 0.6 mg (4% DV)

100 grams: 1.0 mg (7% DV)

7. Cranberries (dried) — 4% DV per serving

1 ounce: 0.6 mg (4% DV)

100 grams: 2.1 mg (14% DV)

8. Olives (pickled) — 3% DV per serving

5 pieces: 0.5 mg (3% DV)

100 grams: 3.8 mg (25% DV)

9. Apricots — 2% DV per serving

1 medium fruit: 0.3 mg (2% DV)

100 grams: 0.9 mg (6% DV)

10. Raspberries — 1% DV per serving

10 pieces: 0.2 mg (1% DV)

100 grams: 0.9 mg (6% DV)

10 Vegetables High in Vitamin E

Like fruits, many vegetables are decent sources of vitamin E, but do not provide nearly as much as nuts and seeds.

1. Red Sweet Pepper (raw) — 13% DV per serving

1 medium pepper: 1.9 mg (13% DV)

100 grams: 1.6 mg (11% DV)

2. Turnip Greens (raw) — 10% DV per serving

1 cup: 1.6 mg (10% DV)

100 grams: 2.9 mg (19% DV)

3. Beet Greens (cooked) — 9% DV per serving

Half a cup: 1.3 mg (9% DV)

100 grams: 1.8 mg (12% DV)

4. Butternut Squash (cooked) — 9% DV per serving

Half a cup: 1.3 mg (9% DV)

100 grams: 1.3 mg (9% DV)

5. Broccoli (cooked) — 8% DV per serving

Half a cup: 1.1 mg (8% DV)

100 grams: 1.5 mg (10% DV)

6. Mustard Greens (cooked) — 8% DV per serving

Half a cup: 1.3 mg (8% DV)

100 grams: 1.8 mg (12% DV)

7. Asparagus (cooked) — 6% DV per serving

4 spears: 0.9 mg (6% DV)

100 grams: 1.5 mg (10% DV)

8. Swiss Chard (raw) — 6% DV per serving

1 leaf: 0.9 mg (6% DV)

100 grams: 1.9 mg (13% DV)

9. Collards (raw) — 5% DV per serving

1 cup: 0.8 mg (5% DV)

100 grams: 2.3 mg (15% DV)

10. Spinach (raw) — 4% DV per serving

1 cup: 0.6 mg (4% DV)

100 grams: 2.0 mg (14% DV)

10 Cooking Oils High in Vitamin E

The richest sources of vitamin E are cooking oils, especially wheat germ oil. Just one tablespoon of wheat germ oil may provide around 135% of the DV.

1. Wheat Germ Oil — 135% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 20 mg (135% DV)

100 grams: 149 mg (996% DV)

2. Hazelnut Oil — 43% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 6.4 mg (43% DV)

100 grams: 47 mg (315% DV)

Shop for hazelnut oil online.

3. Sunflower Oil — 37% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 5.6 mg (37% DV)

100 grams: 41 mg (274% DV)

Shop for sunflower oil online.

4. Almond Oil — 36% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 5.3 mg (36% DV)

100 grams: 39 mg (261% DV)

Shop for almond oil online.

5. Cottonseed Oil — 32% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 4.8 mg (32% DV)

100 grams: 35 mg (235% DV)

Shop for cottonseed oil online.

6. Safflower Oil — 31% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 4.6 mg (31% DV)

100 grams: 34 mg (227% DV)

Shop for safflower oil online.

7. Rice Bran Oil — 29% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 4.4 mg (29% DV)

100 grams: 32 mg (215% DV)

Shop for rice bran oil online.

8. Grapeseed Oil — 26% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 3.9 mg (26% DV)

100 grams: 29 mg (192% DV)

Shop for grapeseed oil online.

9. Canola Oil — 16% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 2.4 mg (16% DV)

100 grams: 18 mg (116% DV)

10. Palm Oil — 14% DV per serving

1 tablespoon: 2.2 mg (14% DV)

100 grams: 16 mg (106% DV)

How Can You Get Enough Vitamin E?

Vitamin E is found in nearly all foods to some extent. For this reason, most people are not at risk of deficiency.

Yet, disorders that affect the absorption of fat, such as cystic fibrosis or liver disease, may lead to deficiency over time, especially if your diet is low in vitamin E (4Trusted Source).

Increasing your vitamin E intake is easy, even without supplements. For instance, an excellent strategy would be to add some sunflower seeds or almonds to your diet.

You can also increase the absorption of vitamin E from low-fat foods by eating them with fat. Adding a tablespoon of oil to your salad could make a significant difference.


9 Healthy Foods That Are Rich in Iodine

Iodine is an essential mineral you must get from your diet.

Interestingly, your thyroid gland needs it to produce thyroid hormones, which have many important responsibilities in your body (1Trusted Source2).

The recommended daily intake (RDI) of iodine is 150 mcg per day for most adults. For women who are pregnant or nursing, the requirements are higher (3).

In fact, one-third of the population is at risk of deficiency, particularly those who live in areas that have only a small amount of iodine in the soil, including European countries (1Trusted Source).

Iodine deficiency can lead to swelling of the thyroid gland, known as goiter, and hypothyroidism, which can cause fatigue, muscle weakness and weight gain (1Trusted Source24Trusted Source).

This article explores 9 iodine-rich food sources that can help prevent a deficiency.

1. Seaweed

Seaweed is a good source of antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. It’s also low in calories.

Seaweed is one of the best natural sources of iodine. However, the amount can vary significantly based on seaweed type, the region in which it grew and its preparation (5).

Three popular seaweed varieties include kombu kelp, wakame and nori.

Kombu Kelp

Kombu kelp is a brown seaweed sold dried or as a fine powder. It is often used to make a Japanese soup stock called dashi.

In a study that surveyed seaweed samples from various Asian countries for their iodine content, it was found that kombu kelp contains, by far, the highest amount of iodine compared to other species of seaweed (5).

Kombu kelp can contain up to 2,984 mcg of iodine per seaweed sheet (1 gram). This provides almost 2,000% of the recommended daily intake (6).

Excess iodine consumption is well-tolerated in the majority of people but could result in thyroid dysfunction for those who are susceptible (7Trusted Source).


Wakame is another type of brown seaweed that is slightly sweet in flavor. It is commonly used to make miso soup.

The amount of iodine in wakame seaweed depends on where it is grown. Wakame from Asia has higher amounts of iodine than wakame from Australia and New Zealand (8Trusted Source).

One study found that the average amount of iodine in wakame seaweed from various parts of the world was 66 mcg per gram, or 44% of the daily recommended intake (8Trusted Source).


Nori is a type of red seaweed. Unlike brown seaweeds, it has a much lower content of iodine.

Nori is the type of seaweed that is commonly used in sushi rolls.

The iodine content in nori varies between 16–43 mcg per gram, or about 11–29% of the daily value (8Trusted Source9).

SUMMARYSeaweed is an excellent source of iodine. However, the amount it contains depends on the species. Kombu kelp offers the highest amount of iodine, with some varieties containing nearly 2,000% of the daily value in one gram.

2. Cod

Cod is a versatile white fish that is delicate in texture and has a mild flavor.

It is relatively low in fat and calories but offers a wide variety of minerals and nutrients, including iodine (6).

According to the Icelandic Food Content Database, fish low in fat have the highest iodine amounts (10Trusted Source).

For instance, 3 ounces (85 grams) of cod has approximately 63–99 mcg, or 42–66% of the daily recommended amount (610Trusted Source).

The amount of iodine in cod can vary slightly depending on whether the fish was farm-raised or wild-caught, as well as the region where the fish was caught (10Trusted Source11).

SUMMARYHigher amounts of iodine are found in fish low in fat compared to fatty fish. For instance, a lean fish like cod can provide up to 66% of the daily value.

3. Dairy

Dairy products are major sources of iodine, especially in American diets (12).

The amount of iodine in milk and dairy differs greatly based on the iodine content in the cattle feed and the use of iodine-containing disinfectants during milking (13Trusted Source).

A comprehensive study measured the iodine content in 18 different brands of milk sold in the Boston area. It found that all 18 brands had at least 88 mcg in 1 cup (8 ounces) of milk. Some brands even contained up to 168 mcg in one cup (14Trusted Source).

Based on these results, 1 cup of milk can provide 59–112% of the recommended daily amount of iodine.

Yogurt is also a good dairy source of iodine. One cup of plain yogurt provides approximately half of the daily recommended amount (6).

The amount of iodine in cheese varies depending on the type.

Cottage cheese is one of the best sources of iodine. One cup of cottage cheese provides 65 mcg, while one ounce of cheddar cheese provides about 12 mcg (15).

SUMMARYAlthough the exact amount of iodine in dairy products varies, milk, yogurt and cheese are major sources of it in the American diet.

4. Iodized Salt

Currently, both iodized and uniodized salt are sold in the United States.

The addition of iodine in table salt began in the US in the early 1920s to help decrease the occurrence of goiters, or swelling of the thyroid gland (16).

There is approximately 71 mcg of iodine in 1/4 teaspoon of iodized salt, which is 47% of the daily recommended intake. However, salt also contains sodium (617).

In the last few decades, iodine intake has decreased in the US. This is likely due to the push of major health organizations to restrict daily sodium intake to prevent or treat high blood pressure.

Nevertheless, salt only seems to raise blood pressure in salt-sensitive individuals, which is about 25% of the population (1618Trusted Source).

SUMMARYIodized and uniodized salt are commonly sold in grocery stores. Consuming 1/2 teaspoon of iodized salt per day provides enough iodine to prevent a deficiency.

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5. Shrimp

Shrimp is a low-calorie, protein-rich seafood that is a very good source of iodine (6).

Additionally, shrimp provides key nutrients such as vitamin B12, selenium and phosphorus (19Trusted Source).

Shrimp and other seafood are good sources of iodine because they absorb some of the iodine that is naturally present in seawater (12).

Three ounces of shrimp contain about 35 mcg of iodine, or 23% of the daily recommended intake (6).

SUMMARYShrimp is a good source of protein and many nutrients, including iodine. Three ounces of shrimp provide approximately 23% of the daily value.

6. Tuna

Tuna is also a low-calorie, high-protein, iodine-rich food. Furthermore, it is a good source of potassium, iron and B vitamins (20).

Tuna is also a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, which may lower your risk of heart disease (21Trusted Source).

Fish higher in fat offer lower amounts of iodine. Since tuna is a fattier fish, the amount of iodine found in tuna is lower than leaner fish varieties, such as cod (22Trusted Source).

However, tuna is still a relatively good source of iodine, as three ounces provide 17 mcg, or about 11% of the recommended daily intake (6).

SUMMARYTuna offers less iodine than lean fish but is still a relatively good source. Three ounces of tuna provide about 11% of the daily recommended amount.

7. Eggs

Eggs are also a good source of iodine.

For fewer than 100 calories, one whole egg provides a lean source of protein, healthy fats and a wide assortment of vitamins and minerals (23).

However, the majority of these nutrients, including iodine, come from the yolk (24).

Egg yolks are a good source of iodine because it is added to chicken feed. Yet since the content of iodine in chicken feed can vary, the amount found in eggs can also fluctuate (1224).

On average, one large egg contains 24 mcg of iodine, or 16% of the daily value (624).

SUMMARYThe majority of iodine in eggs is found in the yolk. On average, one large egg provides 16% of the daily recommended amount.

8. Prunes

Prunes are plums that have been dried.

Prunes are a good vegetarian or vegan source of iodine. Five dried prunes provide 13 mcg of iodine, or about 9% of the daily value (6).

Prunes are commonly known for helping relieve constipation. This is because of their high content of fiber and sorbitol, a type of sugar alcohol (25).

Prunes are high in many vitamins and nutrients, including vitamin K, vitamin A, potassium and iron (25).

Because of the nutrients prunes offer, they may help improve heart health, decrease the risk of colon cancer and even help manage weight by decreasing appetite (252627Trusted Source).

SUMMARYPrunes are packed with vitamins and nutrients. Five dried prunes provide a good vegetarian source of iodine by meeting 9% of the daily value.

9. Lima Beans

Lima beans are commonly associated with the popular Native American dish succotash, which mixes lima beans and corn.

Lima beans are a good source of fiber, magnesium and folate, making them a heart-healthy choice (28).

They are also a relatively good vegetarian or vegan source of iodine.

Due to the variation of iodine in soil, irrigation water and fertilizers, the amount of iodine can vary in fruits and vegetables (629Trusted Source).

However, on average, one cup of cooked lima bean contains 16 mcg of iodine, or 10% of the daily value (6).

SUMMARYLima beans are high in fiber, magnesium, folate and iodine. One cup of cooked lima beans provides about 10% of the daily value of iodine.

The Bottom Line

Iodine is an important mineral, though few food sources are rich in it.

This is why many people around the world are at risk of developing a deficiency.

The foods highest in iodine include seaweed, dairy, tuna, shrimp and eggs. Additionally, most table salt has been iodized, providing an easy way to add iodine to your meals.

YesNoNUTRITIONEvidence Based

10 Signs and Symptoms of Iodine Deficiency

Iodine is an essential mineral commonly found in seafood.

Your thyroid gland uses it to make thyroid hormones, which help control growth, repair damaged cells and support a healthy metabolism (1Trusted Source2Trusted Source).

Unfortunately, up to a third of people worldwide are at risk of an iodine deficiency (3Trusted Source).

Those at the highest risk include (4Trusted Source5Trusted Source6Trusted Source):

  • Pregnant women.
  • People who live in countries where there is very little iodine in the soil. This includes South Asia, Southeast Asia, New Zealand and European countries.
  • People who don’t use iodized salt.
  • People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet.

On the other hand, iodine deficiencies are rare in the US, where there are sufficient levels of the mineral in the food supply (7).

An iodine deficiency can cause uncomfortable and even severe symptoms. They include swelling in the neck, pregnancy-related issues, weight gain and learning difficulties.

Its symptoms are very similar to those of hypothyroidism, or low thyroid hormones. Since iodine is used to make thyroid hormones, an iodine deficiency means your body can’t make enough of them, leading to hypothyroidism.

Here are 10 signs and symptoms of an iodine deficiency.

1. Swelling in the Neck

Swelling in the front of the neck is the most common symptom of an iodine deficiency.

This is called a goiter and occurs when the thyroid gland grows too big.

The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of your neck. It makes thyroid hormones upon receiving a signal from the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (8Trusted Source9Trusted Source).

When blood levels of TSH rise, the thyroid gland uses iodine to make thyroid hormones. However, when your body is low in iodine, it can’t make enough of them (9Trusted Source).

To compensate, the thyroid gland works harder to try to make more. This causes the cells to grow and multiply, eventually leading to a goiter.

Fortunately, most cases can be treated by increasing your iodine intake. However, if a goiter hasn’t been treated for many years, it might cause permanent thyroid damage.


Swelling in the front of the neck, or a goiter, is a common symptom of an iodine deficiency. It occurs when your thyroid gland is forced to make thyroid hormones when there is a low supply of iodine in the body.

2. Unexpected Weight Gain

Unexpected weight gain is another sign of an iodine deficiency.

It may occur if the body does not have enough iodine to make thyroid hormones.

This is because thyroid hormones help control the speed of your metabolism, which is the process by which your body converts food into energy and heat (10Trusted Source11Trusted Source).

When your thyroid hormone levels are low, your body burns fewer calories at rest. Unfortunately, this means more calories from the foods you eat are stored as fat (10Trusted Source11Trusted Source).

Adding more iodine to your diet may help reverse the effects of a slow metabolism, as it can help your body make more thyroid hormones.


Low iodine levels may slow your metabolism and encourage food to be stored as fat, rather than be burned as energy. This may lead to weight gain.

3. Fatigue and Weakness

Fatigue and weakness are also common symptoms of an iodine deficiency.

In fact, some studies have found that nearly 80% of people with low thyroid hormone levels, which occur in cases of iodine deficiency, feel tired, sluggish and weak (12Trusted Source).

These symptoms occur because thyroid hormones help the body make energy.

When thyroid hormone levels are low, the body can’t make as much energy as it usually does. This may cause your energy levels to plummet and leave you feeling weak.

In fact, a study in 2,456 people found that fatigue and weakness were the most common symptoms among those with low or slightly low thyroid hormone levels (13).


Low iodine levels may leave you feeling tired, sluggish and weak. This is because your body needs the mineral to make energy.

4. Hair loss

Thyroid hormones help control the growth of hair follicles.

When your thyroid hormone levels are low, your hair follicles may stop regenerating. Over time, this may result in hair loss (14Trusted Source).

For this reason, people with an iodine deficiency may also suffer from hair loss (15Trusted Source).

One study in 700 people found that 30% of those with low thyroid hormone levels experienced hair loss (16Trusted Source).

However, other studies have found that low thyroid hormone levels only seem to cause hair loss in those with a family history of hair loss (14Trusted Source).

If you experience hair loss because of an iodine deficiency, getting enough of this mineral may help correct your thyroid hormone levels and stop hair loss.


An iodine deficiency may prevent hair follicles from regenerating. Fortunately, getting sufficient iodine can help correct hair loss that occurs due to an iodine deficiency.

5. Dry, Flaky Skin

Dry, flaky skin may affect many people with an iodine deficiency.

In fact, some studies have found that up to 77% of people with low thyroid hormone levels may experience dry, flaky skin (12Trusted Source).

Thyroid hormones, which contain iodine, help your skin cells regenerate. When thyroid hormone levels are low, this regeneration doesn’t occur as often, possibly leading to dry, flaky skin (17Trusted Source).

Additionally, thyroid hormones help the body regulate sweat. People with lower thyroid hormone levels, such as those with an iodine deficiency, tend to sweat less than people with normal thyroid hormone levels (18Trusted Source19).

Given that sweat helps keep your skin moist and hydrated, a lack of sweat may be another reason why dry, flaky skin is a common symptom of iodine deficiency.


Dry, flaky skin may occur with an iodine deficiency, as the mineral helps your skin cells regenerate. It also helps your body sweat and hydrates your skin cells, so an iodine deficiency can cause you to sweat less.

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6. Feeling Colder Than Usual

Feeling cold is a common symptom of an iodine deficiency.

In fact, some studies have found that over 80% of people with low thyroid hormone levels may feel more sensitive to cold temperatures than usual (12Trusted Source).

Since iodine is used to make thyroid hormones, an iodine deficiency can cause your thyroid hormone levels to plummet.

Given that thyroid hormones help control the speed of your metabolism, low thyroid hormone levels may cause it to slow down. A slower metabolism generates less heat, which may cause you to feel colder than usual (2021Trusted Source).

Also, thyroid hormones help boost the activity of your brown fat, a type of fat that specializes in generating heat. This means that low thyroid hormone levels, which may be caused by an iodine deficiency, could prevent brown fat from doing its job (22Trusted Source23Trusted Source).


Iodine helps generate body heat, so low levels of it may leave you feeling colder than usual.

7. Changes in Heart Rate

Your heart rate is a measure of how many times your heart beats per minute.

It may be affected by your iodine levels. Too little of this mineral could cause your heart to beat slower than usual, while too much of it could cause your heart to beat faster than usual (24Trusted Source25Trusted Source).

A severe iodine deficiency may cause an abnormally slow heart rate. This could make you feel weak, fatigued, dizzy and possibly cause you to faint (26).


An iodine deficiency may slow your heart rate, which may leave you feeling weak, fatigued, dizzy and at risk of fainting.

8. Trouble Learning and Remembering

An iodine deficiency may affect your ability to learn and remember (27Trusted Source28Trusted Source29Trusted Source).

A study including over 1,000 adults found that those with higher thyroid hormone levels performed better on learning and memory tests, compared to those with lower thyroid hormone levels (30Trusted Source).

Thyroid hormones help your brain grow and develop. That’s why an iodine deficiency, which is required to make thyroid hormones, can reduce brain development (31Trusted Source).

In fact, studies have found that the hippocampus, the part of the brain that controls long-term memory, appears to be smaller in people with low thyroid hormone levels (32Trusted Source).


An iodine deficiency at any age may cause you to struggle to learn and remember things. One possible reason for this might be an underdeveloped brain.

9. Problems During Pregnancy

Pregnant women are at a high risk of iodine deficiency.

This is because they need to consume enough to meet their own daily needs, as well as the needs of their growing baby. The increased demand for iodine continues throughout lactation, as babies receive iodine through breast milk (33Trusted Source).

Not consuming enough iodine throughout pregnancy and lactation may cause side effects for both the mother and baby.

Mothers may experience symptoms of an underactive thyroid, such as a goiter, weakness, fatigue and feeling cold. Meanwhile, an iodine deficiency in infants may stunt physical growth and brain development (4Trusted Source).

Furthermore, a severe iodine deficiency may increase the risk of stillbirth (34Trusted Source).


Getting enough iodine is especially important for pregnant and breastfeeding women, as they have higher needs. An iodine deficiency may cause severe side effects, especially for the baby, such as stunted growth and brain development.

10. Heavy or Irregular Periods

Heavy and irregular menstrual bleeding may occur as a result of an iodine deficiency (35Trusted Source).

Like most symptoms of iodine deficiency, this is also related to low levels of thyroid hormones, given that iodine is needed to make thyroid hormones.

In one study, 68% of women with low thyroid hormone levels experienced irregular menstrual cycles, compared to only 12% of healthy women (36Trusted Source).

Research also shows that women with low thyroid hormone levels experience more frequent menstrual cycles with heavy bleeding. This is because low thyroid hormone levels disrupt the signals of hormones that are involved in the menstrual cycle (37Trusted Source38).


Some women with an iodine deficiency may experience heavy or irregular periods. This is because low thyroid hormone levels may interfere with hormones that are involved in regulating the menstrual cycle.

Sources of Iodine

There are very few good sources of iodine in the diet. This is one reason why iodine deficiency is common worldwide.

The recommended daily intake (RDI) is 150 mcg per day. This amount should meet the needs of 97–98% of all healthy adults.

However, pregnant or breastfeeding women need more. Pregnant women need 220 mcg daily, while lactating women need 290 mcg daily (39).

The foods below are excellent sources of iodine (39):

  • Seaweed, one whole sheet dried: 11–1,989% of the RDI
  • Cod, 3 ounces (85 grams): 66% of the RDI
  • Yogurt, plain, 1 cup: 50% of the RDI
  • Iodized salt, 1/4 teaspoon (1.5 grams): 47% of the RDI
  • Shrimp, 3 ounces (85 grams): 23% of the RDI
  • Egg, 1 large: 16% of the RDI
  • Tuna, canned, 3 ounces (85 grams): 11% of the RDI
  • Dried prunes, 5 prunes: 9% of the RDI

Seaweed is usually a great source of iodine, but this depends on where it came from. Seaweed from some countries, such as Japan, are rich in iodine (40Trusted Source).

Smaller amounts of this mineral are also found in a variety of foods like fish, shellfish, beef, chicken, lima and pinto beans, milk and other dairy products.

The best way to get enough iodine is to add iodized salt to your meals. Half a teaspoon (3 grams) over the course of the day is enough to avoid a deficiency.

If you think you have an iodine deficiency, it’s best to consult your doctor. They will check for signs of swelling (a goiter) or take a urine sample to check your iodine levels (41Trusted Source).


Iodine is found in very few foods, which is one reason why deficiency is common. Most healthy adults need 150 mcg per day, but pregnant and lactating women need more to meet the needs of their growing babies.

The Bottom Line

Iodine deficiencies are very common, especially in Europe and Third World countries, where the soil and food supply have low iodine levels.

Your body uses iodine to make thyroid hormones. That’s why an iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, a condition in which the body can’t make enough thyroid hormones.

Luckily, deficiency is easy to prevent. Adding a dash of iodized salt to your main meals should help you meet your requirements.

If you think you have an iodine deficiency, it’s best to talk to your doctor. They will check for visible signs of an iodine deficiency, like a goiter, or take a urine sample.







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